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NOT I F ICAT ION NO. 2 1 / 2 0 1 1 , Dt . 2 2 / 1 2 / 2 0 1 1
PARA – 1:
Recruitment applications are invited On-line through the proforma Application to be made
available on WEBSITE (www.apspsc.gov.in) in from 11/01/2012 to 10/02/2012 (Note:
08/02/2012 is the last date for payment of fee) for recruitment to the post of Assistant
Conservator of Forests in A.P. Forest Service.
The desirous eligible Candidates may apply ON-LINE by satisfying themselves with the
terms and conditions of this recruitment. The details are as follows:-
(The details of vacancies viz., Community, Gender (G/W) and State Wide may be seen at
The following blank formats (Proforma) are available in the Commission’s Website
(www.apspsc.gov.in) The candidates can use, if required.
i). Community, Nativity and Date of Birth Certificate
ii). Declaration by the Un-Employed
iii). School Study Certificate
iv). Certificate of Residence
v). Creamy Layer Certificate
IMPORTANT NOTE: Distribution of vacancies among roster points is subject to variation and
confirmation from the Unit Officer/ Appointing authority.
Sl.No. 01
Name of the Post Assistant Conservator of Forests in
A.P. Forest Service.
No. of vacancies 15
Age as on 01/07/2011 18-28
Scale of PayRs. Rs. 20,680-46,960/-.
1. Vacancies: The recruitment will be made to the vacancies notified only. There shall be no
waiting list as per G.O.Ms.No. 81 General Administration (Ser.A) Department, Dated
22/02/1997 and Rule 6 of APPSC Rules of procedure. In any case, no cognisance will be
taken by Commission of any vacancies arising or reported after the completion of the
selection and recruitment process or the last date as decided by the Commission as far as
this Notification is concerned, and these will be further dealt with as per G.O. & Rule cited
2. The Recruitment will be processed as per this Notification and also as per the Rules and
Instructions issued by the Government and also as decided by the Commission from time
to time in terms of respective Special Rules/Adhoc Rules governing the Recruitment and
G.O.Ms.No.154 Environment, Forests, Science & Technology (For-V) Department., dated
18/11/97; G.O.Ms.No.159 Environment, Forests, Science & Technology (For-V)
Department., dated 18/12/2008, and other related G.Os, Rules etc. applicable in this
3. Rules: All are informed that the various conditions and criterion prescribed herein are
governed by the General Rules of A.P. State and Subordinate Service Rules, 1996 read
with the relevant Special Rules applicable to any particular service in the departments. Any
guidelines or clarification is based on the said Rules, and, in case of any necessity, any
matter will be processed as per the relevant General and Special Rules cited as in force.
4. The Commission is empowered under the provisions of Article 315 and 320 of the
Constitution of India read with relevant laws, rules, regulations and executive instructions
and all other enabling legal provisions in this regard to conduct examination for
appointment to the posts notified herein, duly following the principle of order of merit as per
Rule 3(vi) of the APPSC Rules of Procedure read with relevant statutory provisions and
ensuring that the whole recruitment and selection process is carried out with utmost regard
to maintain secrecy and confidentiality so as to ensure that the principle of merit is
scrupulously followed. A candidate shall be disqualified for appointment, if he himself or
through relations or friends or any others has canvassed or endeavored to enlist for his
candidature, extraneous support, whether from official or non-official sources for
appointment to this service.
5. Reservation for local candidates is not applicable as the posts are identified as State Wide
as per Presidential Order.
6. The persons already in Government Service/ Autonomous bodies/ Government aided
institutions etc., whether in permanent or temporary capacity or as work charged
employees are however required to inform in writing, their Head of Office/ Department, that
they have applied for this recruitment.
7. The Commission is also empowered to invoke the penal provisions of the A.P. Public
Examinations (Prevention of Malpractices and Unfair means) Act 25/97 for matters
connected therewith or incidental thereto in respect of this Notification.
8. Caste & Community: Community Certificate issued by the competent authority in terms of
G.O.Ms No. 58, SW (J) Dept., dt: 12/5/97 should be submitted at appropriate time. As per
General Rules for State and Subordinate Service Rules, Rule -2(28) Explanation: No
person who professes a religion different from Hinduism shall be deemed a member of
Schedule Caste. BCs, SCs & STs belonging to other States are not entitled for
reservation, Candidates belonging to other States shall pay the prescribed fee of Rs.
120/- (One hundred and Twenty only) through Challan and upload as indicated at
Para-4. Otherwise such applications will not be considered and no correspondence
on this will be entertained.
9. Reservation and eligibility in terms of General Rule 22 & 22 (A) of A.P. State and
Subordinate Service Rules are applicable.
10. Reservation to Disabled persons is not applicable.
11. The Reservation to Women will apply as per General Rules and Special Rules.
12. Reservation to BC-E group will be subject to the adjudications of the litigation before the
Honorable Courts including final orders in Civil Appeal No: (a) 2628-2637 of 2010 in SLP.
No. 7388-97 of 2010, dated. 25/03/2010 and orders from the Government.
13. Government have issued orders in G.O. Ms. No. 3, Backward Classes Welfare(C-2)
Department, dated 4/4/2006, laying down the criteria to determine Creamy Layer among
Backward Classes in order to exclude from the provisions of reservations. Government of
Andhra Pradesh has adopted all the criteria to determine the Creamy Layer among
Backward Classes as fixed by the Government of India. In view of the Government orders,
in G.O. Ms. No. 3, Backward Classes Welfare(C-2) Department, dated 4/4/2006, the
candidates claiming as belong to Backward Classes have to produce a Certificate
regarding their exclusion from the Creamy Layer from the competent authority (Tahasildar).
Certificate excluding from Creamy Layer has to be produced at an appropriate time. In case

of failure to produce the same on day of verification, the Candidature is rejected without
further correspondence.
14. The Candidates who have obtained Degrees through Open Universities / Distance
Education mode are required to have recognition by the Distance Education Council,
IGNOU. Unless such Degrees had been recognised by the D.E.C. they will not be accepted
for purpose of Educational Qualification. The onus in case of doubt, of Proof of recognition
by the D.E.C. that their Degrees / Universities have been recognised, rests with the
Applicants must possess the qualifications from a recognized University as detailed below or
equivalent thereto, subject to various specifications in the relevant service rules and as indented
by the department as on the date of notification.
Post Code 01
NAME OF THE POST Assistant Conservator
of Forests in A.P. Forest Service.
(i)Must possess a Bachelor’s Degree of a University in India
established or incorporated by or under a Central Act or
Provincial Act or a State Act or an Institution recognized by
the University Grants Commission; or any equivalent
qualification in the following subjects:-
(1) Agriculture (2) Botany (3) Chemistry (4) Computer
Applications/Computer Science (5) Engineering
chanical) (6) Environmental Science (7) Forestry (8) Geology
(9) Horticulture 10) Mathematics (11) Physics (12) Statistics
(13) Veterinary Science (14) Zoology
(ii) Physical Requirements: No person shall be eligible for
appointment by Direct Recruitment unless:
For Men:
1. He is not less than 163 Cms. in height;
2. He has 79 Cms. around the Chest on expiration
and must have on full inspiration, an expansion of
not less than 5 Cms. and
3. He is able to walk 25 Kms. in Four (4) hours.
For Women:
1. She is not less than 150 Cms. in height;
2. She has 74 Cms. around the chest on expiration
and must have on full inspiration, an expansion of
not less than 5 Cms. and
3. She is able to walk 16 Kms. in four (4) hours
N.B: Common for Men and Women
Must undergo a medical Examination to be conducted by the
Medical Board at Hyderabad and produce a health certificate
signed by the Medical Board in the form prescribed by Article
49 of the Civil Service Regulation testifying to the candidates
sound hearing and general physical fitness for out door work
in the Forest Department and to the fact that he bears on his
body marks of successful vaccination.
Provided further that in the case of candidates belonging to
Scheduled Tribes and races such as Gurkhas, Nepalese,
Assamese, Meghalaya, Ladakh, Nagaland, Manipuri, Goutha,
Kashmir, Sikkimese, Bhutanese and Tripura, the minimum
standard of height shall be as follows:
Men : 152 Cms.
Women: 145 Cms
PARA-3 AGE: Minimum 18 years & Maximum 28 years as on 01/07/2011.
N.B.: No person shall be eligible if less than 18 years and is more than 28 of years.

NOTE: The upper age limit prescribed above is relaxable in the following cases:
Sl.No. 1
Category of candidates Retrenched temporary employees in the State Census
Department with a minimum service of 6 months.
Relaxation of age permissible 3 Years

Sl.No. 2
Category of candidates A.P. State Government Employees (Employees of
APSEB, APSRTC, Corporations, Municipalities etc. are
not eligible).
Relaxation of age permissible 5 Years based on the
length of regular service.

Sl.No. 3
Category of candidates Ex-Service men
Relaxation of age permissible 3 years & length of service
rendered in the armed forces.
Sl.No. 4
Category of candidates N.C.C.(who have worked as Instructor in N.C.C.)
Relaxation of age permissible 3 Years & length of service
rendered in the N.C.C.
Category of candidates
SC/ST and BCs
Relaxation of age permissible5 Years
After provision of the relaxation of Age in Col. No. 3 of table above; the age shall not
exceed the maximum age prescribed for the post for the candidates at Sl.No. 3 & 4.
The age relaxations for Ex-Servicemen is applicable for those who have been released
from Armed Forces otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct
or inefficiency.
PARA-4: (a) FEE: (Remittance of Fee) Each applicant must pay Rs. 100/- (Rupees One
Hundred Only) towards Application Processing Fee and Examination Fee RS.120/- (RUPEES
ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY ONLY) (if Candidates are not exempted from payment of Fee).
Payment of Rs. 100/- (Rupees One Hundred Only) towards application processing fee is
compulsory for all Applicants.
b) Mode of Payment of Fee:
I Step:-The Candidate has to logon to the WEBSITE (www.apspsc.gov.in) and enter his/her
Basic Personal Details like Name, Father’s Name, Date of Birth, and Community.
II Step:-Immediately on entering the above details the Applicant will get (downloadable)- Challan
Form to pay the Fee at AP Online centers /State Bank of India.
III Step:-The Applicant should pay the prescribed Fee in any one of the A.P. Online centers /
State Bank of India and obtain Fee paid challan with Journal Number in the first
IV Step:-On the next working day after payment of Fee the Applicant should again visit
WEBSITE and enter the Journal Number to get the format of Application. The applicant
has to invariably fill all the columns in the Application and should submit ON-Line. Even
after making payment of fee, candidate fails to submit the bio-data particulars, such
applications shall be rejected without giving any notice.
V Step:- If any candidate fails to enter “Community” for any reason, they will be treated as an
OC without giving any notice.
NOTE ON EXEMPTIONS: The following category of candidates are exempted from payment of
a) SC, ST, BC & Ex-Service Men.
b) Families having Household Supply White Card issued by Civil Supplies Department, A.P.
Government. (Residents of Andhra Pradesh)
c) Un employed youth in the age group of 18 to 28 years as per G.O.Ms.No. 439,
G.A.(Ser.A) Dept., dated: 18/10/1996 should submit declaration at an appropriate time to
the Commission.
d) Applicants belonging to the categories mentioned above (except Ex-Service Men) hailing
from other States are not entitled for exemption from payment of fee and not entitled for
claiming any kind of reservation.
i) Written Examination (Objective Type).
ii) Walking Test for those qualified in Written Examination.
iii) Oral Test in the shape of Interview only for those who possess required physical
measurements and Qualified in the Walking Test and Medical Test as per rules.
1. Only those candidates who qualify in the Written Examination by being ranked high will
be called for interview in 1:3 ratio. The minimum qualifying marks for interview / selection are
OCs 40%, BCs 35% SCs, STs 30% or as per rules. The minimum qualifying marks are
relaxable in the case of SC/ST/BC on the discretion of the Commission.
2. The candidates will be selected and allotted to Service/ Department as per their rank in
the merit list for the vacancies available under each category subject to rules of reservation.
N.B.: Mere securing minimum qualifying marks shall not vest any right in a candidate for being
called for interview.
3. The appearance in all the papers at the Written Examination and also for interview in
case called upon if qualified as per rules is compulsory. Absence in any of the above tests will
automatically render his candidature as disqualified.
4. Candidates have to produce Original documents and other particulars for verification as
and when required and called for. If the particulars furnished in the application do not tally with
the Original documents produced by the candidate, the candidature will be rejected. As the
recruitment is processed through Computer/Electronic devices on the particulars furnished in
the application form, therefore, the candidate should carefully fill in all the particulars.
5. The appointment of selected candidates will be subject to their being found medically fit
in the appropriate medical classification, and if he is of sound health, active habits free from any
bodily defect or infirmity.
PARA-6: RESERVATION TO LOCAL CANDIDATES: Reservation to the Local candidates is
not applicable as the selection is made on state-wide merit.
PARA-7: SCHEME OF EXAMINATION:- The Scheme & Syllabus for the written examination
has been shown in Annexure-II. The Written Examination will be followed by walking test and
oral test for only provisionally qualified as per rules which will be notified at the appropriate time.
i) The Applicants have to read the User Guide for Online Submission of Applications and
then proceed further.
I Step: The Candidate has to logon to the WEBSITE (www.apspsc.gov.in) and enter his/her
Basic Personal Details like Name, Father’s Name, Date of Birth, and Community.
II Step: Immediately on entering the above details the Applicant will get (downloadable)- Challan
Form to pay the Fee at AP Online centers /State Bank of India.
III Step: The Applicant should pay the prescribed Fee in any one of the A.P. Online centers /
State Bank of India and obtain Fee paid challan with Journal Number in the first
IV Step: On the next working day after payment of Fee the Applicant should again visit
WEBSITE and enter the Journal Number to get and fill the format of Application and
should submit ON-LINE.
V Step: Affix your recent Colour Passport Size Photograph on a White Paper and then sign
below the photograph with Black Pen. Scan the above Photo and Signature and Upload
in the appropriate space provided (JPG Format) in Application Form.
VI Step: The applicants have to invariably fill all the relevant columns in the Application and
should submit ON-LINE.
ii) Hand written/ Typed/ Photostat copies/ outside printed Application Form will not
be accepted and liable for rejection.
iii) Only applicants willing to serve anywhere in the Andhra Pradesh should apply.
iv) For any problems related to Online submission and downloading of Hall-Tickets please
contact 040-23557455 ((Call Time: 9.30 A.M to 1.00 P.M & 1.30 P.M to 5.30 P.M) or mail
to appschelpdesk@gmail.com.
1. The Commission is not responsible, for any discrepancy in submitting through Online. The
applicants are therefore, advised to strictly follow the instructions and User guide in their
own interest.
2. The particulars furnished by the applicant in the Application Form will be taken as final, and
data entry processed, based on these particulars only by Computer. Candidates should,
therefore, be very careful in Uploading / Submitting the Application Form Online.
4. Before Uploading/Submission Application Form, the Candidates should carefully ensure
his/her eligibility for this examination. NO RELEVANT COLUMN OF THE APPLICATION
5. The Commission reserves the right to create centre(s) for examination and also to call the
Candidates for the test at any other centre.
1. The Written Examination will be held at HYDERABAD only.
2. The Written Examination will be held on 08/04/2012.
1) The candidates must note that his/her admission to the examination is strictly provisional.
The mere fact that an Admission has been issued to him/her does not imply that his/her
candidature has been finally cleared by the Commission or that the entries made by the
candidate in his/her application have been accepted by the Commission as true and correct.
Candidates are required to upload his / her photo with signature in the prescribed format of
Application form. Failure to produce the same photograph, if required, at the time of
verification, may lead to disqualification. Hence the candidates are advised not to change
their appearance till the recruitment process is complete.
2) The candidates should go through the instructions given on the cover page of test booklet
and carefully write his/her Register Number, Centre etc., in the Answer Sheet, which will be
provided to him/her in the examination hall.
3) Since the answer sheets are to be scanned (valued) with Optical Mark Scanner system, the
ANSWERS. The candidates will be supplied OMR Sheet in duplicate. The candidate is
required to use Ball Point Pen (Blue or Black) for filling the relevant blocks in the OMR
Sheet including bubbling the answers. After writing the examination the candidate has to
handover the original OMR sheet to the invigilator in the examination hall, if any candidate
takes away the original OMR Sheet his/her candidature will be rejected. However the
candidate is permitted to take away the duplicate OMR Sheet. The candidates should bring
Ball Point Pen(Blue/Black) and smooth writing pad to fill up relevant columns on the Answer
Sheet. The candidate must ensure encoding the Subject, Register No., etc., on the O.M.R.
Answer sheet correctly, failing which the Answer sheet will be rejected and will not be
valued. Use of whitener on OMR Sheet will lead to disqualification.
4) The candidates should satisfy the Invigilator of his identity with reference to the signature
and photographs.
5) The candidates should take their seats 20 minutes before the commencement of the
examination and are not to be allowed after 10 minutes of the scheduled time. They should
not leave the examination hall till expiry of fulltime. The candidates are allowed to use the
calculators in the examination hall (not programmable calculators). Loaning and
interchanging of articles among the candidates is not permitted in the examination hall. Cell
phones and Pagers are not allowed in the examination hall.
6) The candidates are expected to behave in orderly and disciplined manner while writing the
examination. If any candidate takes away the original Answer Sheet, the candidature will be
rejected. However, the candidate is permitted to take away the duplicate of the OMR Sheet
and in case of impersonation/ disorder/ rowdy behaviour during Written Examination,
necessary F.I.R. for this incident will be lodged with concerned Police Station, apart from
disqualifying appointment in future.
Merit is the only criteria that decides the selections. Candidates trying to use unfair
means shall be disqualified from the selection. No correspondence whatsoever will be
entertained from the candidates. The candidature and conditions specified here are subject
to latest rules / orders come into force during the process of recruitment.
7) The Commission would be analyzing the responses of a candidate with other appeared
candidates to detect patterns of similarity. If it is suspected that the responses have been
shared and the scores obtained are not genuine/ valid, the Commission reserves the right to
cancel his/ her candidature and to invalidate the Answer Sheet.
8) If the candidate noticed any discrepancy printed on Hall ticket as to community, date of birth
etc., they may immediately bring to the notice of Commission’s officials/Chief
Superintendent in the exam centre and necessary corrections be made in the Nominal Roll
for being verified by the Commission’s Office.
a) Candidates should make sure of their eligibility to the post applied for and that the
declaration made by them in the format of application regarding their eligibility is correct in
all respects. Any candidate furnishing in-correct information or making false declaration
regarding his/her eligibility at any stage or suppressing any information is liable TO BE
CONDUCTED BY THE COMMISSION, and summarily rejection of their candidature for this
b) The Penal Provisions of Act 25/97 published in the A.P. Gazette No. 35, Part-IV.B
Extraordinary dated: 21/08/1997 shall be invoked if malpractice and unfair means are
noticed at any stage of the Recruitment.
c) The Commission is vested with the constitutional duty of conducting recruitment and
selection as per rules duly maintaining utmost secrecy and confidentiality in this process
and any attempt by anyone causing or likely to cause breach of this constitutional duty in
such manner or by such action as to violate or likely to violate the fair practices followed and
ensured by the Commission will be sufficient cause for rendering such questionable means
as ground for debarment and penal consequences as per law and rules as per decision of
the Commission.
d) Any candidate is or has been found impersonating or procuring impersonation by any
person or resorting to any other irregular or improper means in connection with his / her
candidature for selection or obtaining support of candidature by any means, such a
candidate may in addition to rendering himself/ herself liable to criminal prosecution, will be
liable to be debarred permanently from any exam or selection held by the Service
Commission’s in the country.
e) MEMORANDUM OF MARKS: Memorandum of Marks is issued on payment of Rs.25/-
(Rupees twenty five only) through crossed Indian Postal Order only drawn in favour of the
Secretary, A.P. Public Service Commission, Hyderabad. Request for Memorandum of
Marks from candidates, will be entertained within two months from the date of publication of
the selections. Such a request must necessarily be accompanied by a Xerox copy of the
Hall-ticket. Request for revaluation or recounting will not be under taken under any
circumstances. Invalid, disqualified, ineligible candidates will not be issued any
Memorandum of Marks and fees paid by such candidates, if any, will be forfeited to
Government account, without any correspondence in this regard.
If any candidate fails to mark the Booklet Series, Roll Number etc., in the OMR Answer
Sheet, the Commission reserves the right to invalidate such Answer Sheets as Answer
Sheets are valued by Optical Mark Scanner. In case of rejection/ invalidation due to
omission on the part of the candidate, the decision of the Commission is final and such
request for Memorandum of Marks in such cases will be intimated accordingly. No request
for reconsideration of such rejected/invalidated cases will be entertained under any
circumstances whatsoever.
The decision of the Commission in all aspects and all respects pertaining to the
application and its acceptance or rejection as the case may be, conduct of examination and at
all consequent stages culminating in the selection or otherwise of any candidate shall be final in
all respects and binding on all concerned, under the powers vested with it under Article 315 and
320 of the Constitution of India. Commission also reserves its right to alter and modify regarding
time and conditions laid down in the notification for conducting the various stages up to
selection, duly intimating details thereof to all concerned, as warranted by any unforeseen
circumstances arising during the course of this process, or as deemed necessary by the
Commission at any stage.
DATE: 22/12/2011 SECRETARY

NOT I F ICAT ION NO. 2 1 / 2 0 1 1
5 2 – 1 – 1 1 – 1 – – – 2 1 – 1 9 6 15
Total: 5 2 – 1 – 1 1 – 1 – – – 2 1 – 1 9 6 15
Note:- 1) The vacancies are notified as per the indent of the Unit Officer.
2) The vacancies meant for General Recruitment are subject to variation, with reference
to vacancy position at any time before or at the time of actual selection.
3) There should be no waiting list as per G.O. Ms. No. 81, and Rule 6 of APPSC Rules
of Procedure.

Paper-I General Studies
150 Minutes 150 Questions 150 Marks
Paper-II Concerned Subject 150 Minutes 150 Questions 300 Marks
Interview 50 Marks
Total : 500 Marks
List of Optional Subjects:
The candidates have to choose one optional subject from the following:
01. Agriculture 08. Civil Engineering 15. Geology
02. Botany 09. Computer Engineering 16. Horticulture
03. Chemistry 10. Electrical Engineering 17. Mathematics
04. Computer Applications 11. Electronics Engineering 18. Physics
05. Computer Science 12. Mechanical Engineering 19. Statistics
06. Agriculture Engineering 13. Environmental Science 20. Veterinary Science
07. Chemical Engineering 14. Forestry 21. Zoology
N.B: 1. Question papers will be set in English only.
2. Subject to minimum qualifying marks for interview and selection viz; 40% for Ocs; 35%
for BCs and 30% for SCs/STs the candidates belonging to SCs/STs/BCs may be
called for interview by relaxing the minimum qualifying marks at the discretion of the
Commission; if the Commission is of the opinion that the sufficient number of
candidates from these communities are not likely to come up for interview.
3. After written examination eligible candidates will be picked up at the ratio of 1:3
category wise duly following the special representation as laid down in General Rule-
22 of State & Subordinate Service Rules.
4. The candidates are required to under go walking test and also Medical Examination
(Conducted by a Medical Board) before finally called for interview. Both the tests shall
be arranged by the Forest Department duly taking concurrence of the Commission.
5. Appearance at all papers and tests is compulsory for eligibility of candidature for
Interview. Absence at any or all of the papers will render the candidature invalid for
the recruitment

1. General Science – Contemporary developments in Science and Technology and their
implications including matters of every day observation and experience, as may be
expected of a well-educated person who has not made a special study of any scientific
2. Current events of national and international importance.
3. History of India – emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its
social, economic, cultural and political aspects with a focus on AP Indian National
4. World Geography and Geography of India with a focus on AP.
5. Indian polity and Economy – including the country’s political system- rural development –
Planning and economic reforms in India.
6. Mental Ability – Reasoning & Inferences.
7. DISASTER MANAGEMENT (Source : CBSE Publications)
1. Concepts in disaster management and vulnerability profile of India / State of A.P.
2. Earth quakes / Cyclones / Tsunami / Floods / Drought – causes and effects.
3. Man made disasters - Prevention strategies.
4. Mitigation strategies / Mitigation measures

Agriculture, its importance in National economy. Factors determining agro-ecological zones and
geographic distribution of crop plants. Importance of crop plants, cultural practices for cereal,
pulses, oilseed, fibre, sugar, tuber and fodder crops and scientific basis for these crop-rotations,
multiple and relay cropping, intercropping and mixed cropping.
Soil as medium of plant growth and its composition, mineral and organic constituents of the soil
and their role in crop production; chemical, physical and microbiological properties of soils.
Essential plant nutrients (macro and micro) their functions, occurrence, cycling in soils.
Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertilizer use. Organic manures and biofertilizers,
inorganic fertilizers, integrated nutrient management.
Principles of plant physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, transactions and
metabolism of nutrients.
Diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies and their amelioration photosynthesis and respiration, growth
and development, auxins and hormones in plant growth.
Cell and cell organelles. Cell division. Reproductive cycle, Principles of genetics, geneinteraction,
sex determination, linkage and re-combination, mutation, extra chromosomal
inheritance, polyploidy. Origin and domestication of crop plants. Genetic resourcesconservation
and utilization. Floralbiology in relation to selfing and crossing.
Genetic basis of plant breeding pureline selection, mass selection, male sterility and
incompatibility and their use in plant breeding. Pedigree selection, back-cross method of
selection. Heterosis and its exploitation. Development of hybrids, composites and synthetic,
important varieties, hybrids, composites and synthetic of major crops. Seeds and seed
production techniques.
Important fruit and vegetable crops of India, method of propagation-Sexual and asexual.
Package and practices and their scientific basis. Crop rotation, intercropping, companion crops,
role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition, post-harvest handling and processing of fruits
and vegetables. Landscaping and ornamental horticulture, commercial floriculture. Medicinal
and aromatic plants. Serious pests and diseases affecting major crops. Principles of control of
crop pests and diseases, integrated management. Proper use and maintenance of plant
protection equipment.
Principles of economics as applied to agriculture. Farm planning and optimum resource-use
efficiency and maximizing income and employment. Farm systems and their spatial distribution,
their significant roles in regional economic development.

1. Cell Biology: Structure and function of cell wall (extracelluar matrix or ECM), cell membrane
and cell organelles, Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex (NPC), chromosome and
nucleosome, Mitosis, meiosis, molecular control involving check-points in cell division cycle.
Differentiation, cellular senescence.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: Laws of inheritance. Concept of gene
and allelomorph. Linkage crossing over and gene mapping. Structural and numerical changes
in chromosomes and gene mutations. Sex determination and differentiation. Structure and
synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Genetic code. Regulation of gene expression. Genetic
engineering and crop improvement. Protoplast, cell, tissue and organ cultures. Somatic
hybridization. Biofertilizers and biopesticides. Biotechnology in agri-horticulture, medicine and
3. Tissue Systems: Origin, development, structure and function of primary and secondary
4. Plant Diversity and Systematics: Structure and function of plant forms from evolutionary
aspects (viruses to Angiosperms including fossils_. Principles of nomenclature, classification
and identification of plants. Modern approaches in plant Taxonomy. Recent classification of
living organism into three groups (bacteria, archaea and eukarya).
5. Plant Physiology: Water relations. Mineral nutrition. Photosynthesis. Respiration.
Nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes and coenzymes. Dynamics of growth, growth movements,
growth substances, photomorphogenesis. Secondary metabolites. Isotopes in biological
studies. Physiology of flowering.
6. Methods of Reproduction and Seed Biology: Vegetative, asexual and sexual methods of
reproduction. Pollination and fertilization. Sexual incompatibility. Development, structure,
dormancy and germination of seed.
7. Plant Pathology: Diseases of rice, wheat, sugarcane, potato, mustard, groundnut and
cotton crops. Factors affecting infection (host factors, pathogen factors, biotic factors like
rhizosphere and phyllosphere organisms). Chemical, biological and genetic methods of disease
control (including transgenic plants).
8. Plant and Environment: Biotic and abiotic components. Ecological adaptation. Types of
vegetational zones and forests of India. Deforestation, afforestation, social forestry and plant
introduction. Soil erosion, wasteland, reclamation. Environmental pollution and its control
(including phytoremediation). Bio-indicators. Global warming.
9. Biodiversity, plant Genetic Resources: Methods of conservation of plant genetic
resources and its importance. Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). Endangered,
threatened and endemic taxa. Role of cell/tissue culture in propagation and enrichment of
genetic diversity. Plants as sources of food, fodder, forage, fibres, oils, drugs, wood and timber,
paper, rubber, beverages, spices, essential oils and resins, gums, dyes, insecticides, pesticides
and ornamentation. Biomass as a source of energy.
10. Origin of Life and Evolution: Basic concept of origin of earth and origin of life. Theories of
organic evolution, molecular basis of evolution.

1.1 Atomic structure: Schrodinger wave equation, significance of O and O2 quantum numbers
and their significance, radial and angular probability, shapes of orbitals, relative energies of
atomic orbitals as a function of atomic number. Electronic configurations of elements; Aufbau
principle, Hund’s multiplicity rule, Pauli exclusion principle.
1.2 Chemical periodicity: Periodic classification of elements, salient characteristics of s,p,d
and f block elements. Periodic trends of atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization potential, electron
affinity and electro-negativity in the periodic table.
1.3 Chemical bonding: Types of bonding, overlap of atomic orbitals, sigma and pi-bonds,
hydrogen and metallic bonds. Shapes of molecules bond order, bond length, V.S.E.P.R. theory
and bond angles. The concept of hybridization and shapes of molecules and ions.
1.4 Oxidation states and oxidation number: Oxidation and reduction, oxidation numbers,
common redox reactions, ionic equations. Balancing of equations for oxidation and reduction
1.5 Acids and bases: Bronsted and Lewis theories of acids and bases. Hard and soft acids
and bases. HSAB principle, relative strengths of acids and bases and the effect of substituents
and solvents on their strength.
1.6 Chemistry of elements:
i) Hydrogen: Its unique position in the periodic table, isotopes, ortho and para
hydrogen, industrial production, heavy water.
ii) Chemistry of ‘s’ and ‘p’ block elements: Electronic configuration, general
characteristics properties, inert pair effect, allotrophy and catenation. Special
emphasis on solutions of alkali and alkaline earth metals in liquid ammonia.
Preparation, properties and structures of boric acid, borates, boron nitrides,
borohydride (diborane), carboranes, oxides and oxyacids of nitrogen, phosphorous,
sulphur and chlorine; interhalogen compounds, polyhalide ions, pseudohalogens,
fluorocarbons and basic properties of halogens. Chemical reactivity of noble gases,
preparation, structure and bonding of noble gas compounds.
iii) Chemistry of ‘d’ block elements: Transition metals including lanthanides, general
characteristic properties, oxidation states, magnetic behaviour, colour. First row
transition metals and general properties of their compounds (oxides, halides and
sulphides); lanthanide contraction.
1.7 Extraction of metals: Principles of extraction of metals as illustrated by sodium,
magnesium, aluminum, iron, nickel, copper, silver and gold.
1.8 Nuclear Chemistry: Nuclear reactions; mass defect and binding energy, nuclear fission
and fusion. Nuclear reactors; radioisotopes and their applications.
1.9 Coordination compounds: Nomenclature, isomerism and theories of coordination
compounds and their role in nature and medicine.
1.10 Pollution and its control: Air pollution, types of air pollution, control of air and water
pollution, radioactive pollution.
2.1 Bonding and shapes of organic molecules: Electronegativity, electron displacementsinductive,
mesomeric and hyperconjugative effects; bond polarity and bond polarizability, dipole
moments of organic molecules; hydrogen bond; effects of solvent and structure on dissociation
constants of acids and bases; bond formation, fission of covalent bonds; homolysis and
heterolysis; reaction intermediates-carbocations, carbanions, free radicals and carbenes;
generation geometry and stability; nucleophiles and electrophiles.
2.2 Chemistry of aliphatic compounds: Nomenclature alkanes-synthesis, reactions (free
radical halogenation) – reactivity and selectivity, sulphonation-detergents; cycloalkanes-
Baeyers’ strain theory; alkanes and alkynes-synthesis, electrohilic addition; reactions,
Markownikov’s rule, peroxide effects, 1-3-dipolar addition; nucleophilic addition to electrondeficient
alkenes; polymerization; relative acidity; synthesis and reactions of alkyl halides,

alkanols, alkanals, alkanones, alkanoic acids, esters, amides, nitriles, amines, acid anhydrides,
PQ -unsatuarated ketones, ethers and nitro compounds.
2.3 Stereochemistry of carbon compounds: Elements of symmetry, chiral and achiral
compounds. Fischer projection formulae; optical isomerism of lactic and tartaric acids,
enantiomerism and diastereo-isomerism; configuration (relative and absolute); conformations of
alkanes upto four carbons, cyclohexane and dimethylcyclo-hexanes their potential energy D,L
and R,S notations of compounds containing chiral centers; projection formulae-Fischer,
Newman and sawhorse of compounds containing two adjacent chiral centers; meso and dlisomers,
erythro and threo isomers; racemization and resolution; examples of homotopic,
enantiotopic and diasteretopic atoms and groups in organic compounds, geometrical isomers; E
and Z notations. Stero-chemistry of SN1, SN2,E1 and E2 reactions.
2.4 Organometallic compounds: Preparation and synthetic uses of Grignard reagents, alkyl
lithium compounds.
2.5 Active methylene compounds: Diethyl malonate, ethyl acetoacetate. ethyl cyanoacetateapplications
in organic synthesis; tautomerism (keto-enol).
2.6 Chemistry of aromatic compounds: Aromaticity; Huckel’s rule; electrophilic aromatic
substitution-nitration, sulphonation, halogenation (nuclear and side chain), Friedel-Crafts
alkylation and acylation, substituents effect; chemistry and reactivity of aromatic halides,
phenols, nitro, diazo, dia-zonium and sulphonic acid derivatives, benzyne reactions.
2.7 Chemistry of biomolecules: (i) Carobhydrates: Classification, reactions, structure of
glucose, D,L-configuration, osazone formation; fructose and sucrose; step-up step-down of
aldoses and ketoses; and their interconversion, (ii) Amino acids: Essential amino acids;
zwitterions, isoelectric point, polypeptides; proteins; methods of synthesis of P-amino acids. (iii)
Elementary idea of oils, fats, soaps and detergents.
2.8 Basic principles and applications of UV, visible, IR and NMR spectroscopy of simple organic
3.1 Gaseous state: Deviation of real gases from the equation of state for an ideal gas, Vander
Waals and Viril equation of state, critical phenomena, principle of corresponding states,
equation for reduced state. Liquification of gases, distribution of molecular speed, collisions
between molecules in a gas; mean free path, specific heat of gases.
3.2 Thermodynamics:
(i) First Law and its applications: Thermodynamic systems, states and processes
work, heat and internal energy, zeroth law of thermodynamics, various types of work
done on a system in reversible and irreversible processes. Calorimetry and thermochemistry,
enthalpy and enthalpy changes in various physical and chemical
processes, Joule-Thomson effect, inversion temperature. Heat capacities and
temperature dependence of enthalpy and energy changes.
(ii) Second Law and its applications: Spontaneity of a process, entropy and entropy
changes in various processes, free energy functions, criteria for equilibrium, relation
between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities.
3.3 Phase rule and its applications: Equilibrium between liquid, solid and vapours of a pure
substance, Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its applications. Number of components, phases
and degrees of freedom; phase rule and its applications; simple systems with one (water and
sulphur) and two components (lead-silver, salt hydrates). Distribution law, its modifications,
limitations and applications.
3.4 Solutions: Solubility and its temperature dependence, partially miscible liquids, upper and
lower critical solution temperatures, vapour pressures of liquids over their mixtures, Raoult’s and
Henry’s law, fractional and steam distillations.
3.5 Colligative Properties: Dilute solutions and colligative properties, determination of
molecular weights, using colligative properties.
3.6 Electro-chemistry: Ions in solutions, ionic equilibria, dissociation constants of acids and
bases, hydrolysis, pH and buffers, theory of indicators and acid-base titrations. Conductivity of
ionic solutions, its variation with concentration, Ostwald’s dilution law, Kohrausch law and its
application. Transport number and its determination. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, galvanic
cells and measurements of their e.m.f., cell reactions, standard cell, standard reduction potential
Nernst equation, relation between thermodynamic quantities and cell e.m.f., fuel cells,
potentiometric titrations.
3.7 Chemical kinetics: Rate of chemical reaction and its dependence on concentrations of the
reactants, rate constant and order of reaction and their experimental determination; differential
and integral rate equations for first and second order reaction, half-life periods; temperature
dependence of rate constant and Arrhenius parameters; elementary ideas regarding collision
and transition state theory.
3.8 Photochemistry: Absorption of light, laws of photochemistry, quantum yield, the excited
state and its decay by radiative, non-radiative and chemical pathways; simple photochemical
3.9 Catalysis: Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and their characteristics,
mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis; enzyme catalysed reactions (Michaelis-Menten
3.10 Colloids: The colloidal state, preparation and purification of colloids and their
characteristics properties; lyophilic and lyophobic colloids and coagulation; protection of
colloids; gels, emulsions, surfactants and micelles.

Computer Fundamentals and Applications
Generation of Computers, PC Family of Computers, Different I/O devices; Introduction to
Operating System, Overview of different Operating Systems, Functions of Operating System;
Introduction to Windows, Working with Accessories (Notepad, WordPad and Paint);
Personalizing Windows, Installing and Removing Applications, Boot Options and Concept of
Introduction to Office Tools: Word Processing, Advantages of Work Processing, fundamentals
of MS-Word, Working with Menus and Toolbars, Introduction to Macros. Overview of Excel,
Working with Cells, Creating Worksheets, Working with Formulae Bar. Introduction to
PowerPoint, Creating and Designing Slides, Working with Hyperlinks & Animation.
Data and File Structures
Introduction: Introduction to Data Structures; Primitive and non-primitive data structure; Linear
and non-linear data structure; Recursion Function and its examples. String Manipulation, String
Matching Techniques & Applications.
Concept of Stack and Queue. Single and Doubly – Linked Lists. Circular linked List, their
implementation and comparison. Array based and Linked List based Implementation of stack
and Queues and their applications.
Searching: Sequential and Binary Search on Array – based ordered lists. Sorting Techniques:
Insertion Sort, Selection Sort, Quick Sort, Heap Sort. External Sorting: K-way Merge Strategy.
File Structures: Sequential Files, Indexed Files, Direct Files.
Binary Trees, their implementation and traversals. Binary Search Tree: Searching, Insertion and
Deletion of nodes.
Database Management Systems
Elementary Database Concepts. Relational model – Concept, Algebra and Constraints, Use of
SQL as a Relational database language in data definition and query formulation. ER Model,
Normalization: First, Second, Third Normalizations. Database backup, recovery.
Programming concepts in C/C++
C Language fundamentals, Data types, Variables, Operators. Functions, Parameter passing
techniques, storage classes, Recursion. Arrays: Declaration; initialization; 2-dimensional and 3-
dimensional array, passing array to function, strings and string functions, and character arrays.
File I/O.
Introduction to classes and objects; Constructor; destructor; Operator overloading; Function
Overloading; function overriding; friend function; copy constructor;
Inheritance: Single, Multiple and Multilevel Inheritance; Virtual functions and Polymorphism:
Dynamic binding, Static binding; Virtual functions; Pure virtual function; Concrete
implementation of virtual functions; Dynamic binding Call mechanism, Implementation of
Polymorphism, virtual destructors.
Templates: function Templates, Class Templates, Member function Template and Template
Arguments, Exception Handling, Standard Template Library; Containers, Algorithms, Iterators
and Function Objects.
Software Engineering
Introduction: Software Engineering, Evolving role of Software, Concept of Software, Changing
nature of Software, Software Myths, Software Importance, Characteristics, Software
Components, Software crises, Software engineering Challenges (Scale, Quality Productivity,
Consistency and Repeatability, Change), Software standard, Software Engineering Approach.
Introduction to Software Requirement Analysis and Specification: Software requirement, (need
for SRS requirement process), problem analysis (informal approach, data flow modelling, Object
oriented modelling, prototyping), requirement specification (characteristics, components),
Concept of Use Cases, Concept of validation
Design Engineering: Function oriented design, Design principles, Coupling and Cohesion,
Design Notations & Specifications, Structured Design Methodology.

Operating Systems
Overview of an Operating System, Resource Management, Operating System Interface,
Process Management concepts, Inter-Process Communication, Process Scheduling,
Synchronization, Deadlocks.
Memory Management, Linking, Loading, Memory Allocation, Design Issues and Problems,
Virtual Memory, Fragmentation, Implementing Virtual Memory Paging, Segmentation, Virtual
Memory Design Techniques, Buffering Techniques, Spooling.
File Management- File Systems & I/O Device Drivers, Access Strategies, File Systems, File
System Oraganization, Design Techniques.
Case Studies, Unix/Linux Operating Systems, Users View, design Principles, Implementation,
Process Management, File System, I/O System, Windows 2003.
Java Programming
An overview to Java, Comparison with other languages (C & C++), Java and Internet, Features
of Java, Introduction to Java Virtual Machine, Object Oriented Programming concepts
(Abstraction, Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism). Data types, Variables, Operators.
Arrays: Single and Multidimensional. Input, output, Error Statements, Control Statements and
Looping Structures. Typecasting, Classes & Objects: Class Fundamentals, Declaring Objects,
Constructors, Overloading, Access specifiers, static, the final modifier, Command Line
arguments & Argument passing. Inheritance : Basics of Inheritance, Super class, Member
Access, Creating a Multilevel Hierarchy, Method Overriding, Dynamic Method Dispatch &
Abstract Class.
Packages and Interfaces, Exception Handling; fundamentals of Exceptions, Exception types,
using Try and Catch, Throwing Exceptions, Multithreaded Programming: Java Thread Model,
Creating & working with threads, String handling functions.
File Handling, File Class, Streams: Stream Classes, Reading & writing to Console, Accessing
Files & Directories, File Input and Output Stream, Byte Array Input & Output Stream. Character
Applets: Overview, Life cycle of an Applet, HTML tag, Parameter Passing, Applet vs
Applications. Introduction, working with AWT Controls and Layout Manager, Event Handling.
Introduction to Swings, JDBC.

1. Digital Computer Fundamentals: Number Systems and Information Codes- Binary,
octal and Hexadecimal systems, Computer Arithmetic, BCD, EBCIDIC and ASCII
codes. Boolean Algebra , Demorgans Law, Logic gates, K-maps and logic design of Flip
Flops. Decoders, Registers and Counters.
2. Computer Organization and Architecture: Fixed point and Floating point Number
Representations. Computer Hardware and flow of Information, CPU, , Buses and
Peripheral Equipment, Memory Hierarchy, Interrupts, I/O organization, DMA
3. Programming: C Programming - Datatypes, operators, expressions, control
statements, structures and union, functions, pointers, fileprocessing.
4. Data Structures and Algorithms: Stacks, Queues, Array and Linked representation,
Singly and doubly linked lists, Trees, Traversal and Insertion and Deletion operations,
Graphs, representation and basic operations, Sorting and searching, Analysis of
Algorithms, order notation
5. Operating Systems: Basic OS functions, Process management, Process Scheduling,
Memory Management, Virtual Memory, Device Management, File system Management.
6. Data Base Management Systems: Database models, data Independence, DDL and
DML, E-R Diagrams, Logical and Physical structures, Relational Database Structure,
Normalization, SQL, Database transaction, backup and recovery management.
7. Computer Communications: : LAN, WAN, Network Topologies, Error Detection and
Correction Codes, OSI Reference model, TCP/IP protocol stack, Data Link protocols, IP
addressing, Packet Switching, Circuit Switching and message switching, cryptography,
8. System Analysis and Design: System Analysis and Design Life cycle, Requirements
analysis, Feasibility Study. Tools for system Analysis, DFDs, Design Tables, Object
oriented system modelling, Verification and validation.
9. Systems Software: Loaders, Linkers, Assemblers, Compilers, Macroprocessors,
Major Functions and Design Principles.
10. Internet Technologies: : Introduction to Internet, www, Internet browsers Netscape &
Explorer, Telnet, Search Engines. Hypertext Markup Language, HTML Tags, Frames,
Creating HTML documents, DHTML

01. Soil Science +soil physics +soil mechanics
02 Agronomy +Agricultural Extension + Agricultural Economics
03. Heat and mass transfer +Refrigeration and Air conditioning
04. Unit operations in Agricultural process Engineering
05. Process Engineering for Agricultural produce starting from crop threshing and upto
storage of crops
06. Process Engineering for horticulture produce + dairy Engineering
07. Strength of materials and theory of structures
08. Electrical Engineering and farm electrification
09. Alternate energy sources
10. Thermodynamics-heat engines and farm power
11. Farm machinery and equipment
12. Instrumentation-design of Agricultural machines-Industrial Engineering
13. Land development machinery
14. Surveying and levelling
15. Open channels-wells and pumps
16. Irrigation + drainage + sprinkler and drip systems
17. Soil and water conservation + soil conservation structures.

energy; use of tie components; recycle, bypass and purge calculations; degrees of freedom.
First & Second law of thermodynamics and their applications; equations of state and
thermodynamic properties of real systems; phase equilibria; fugacity; excess properties and
correlations of activity coefficients; chemical reaction equilibria.
Newtonian fluids, macroscopic energy balance, Bernoulli equation, dimensional analysis,
continuity equation, flow through pipeline systems, flow meters, pumps and compressors,
packed and fluidized beds, elementary boundary layer theory.
Size reduction, and size separation, free and hindered settling, centrifuges, and cyclones,
thickening and classification, filtration, mixing and agitation, storage and handling of solids.
HEAT TRANSFER: Conduction, convection and radiation, heat transfer coefficients, study and
unsteady heat conduction, boiling, condensation and evaporation, types of heat exchangers &
evaporators and their design principles.
MASS TRANSFER: Flick’s law, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration and surface
renewal theories; momentum, heat and mass trans analogies; stage wise continuous contacting
and stage efficiencies; design principles and operation of equipment for distillation absorption,
leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, crystallization, drying, humidification, dehumidification and
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING: Theories of reaction rates; kinetics of homogeneous
reactions, interpretation of kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors; nonisothermal
reactors; basics of non-ideal flow, F& E curves, axial dispersion; kinetics of
heterogeneous catalytic reactions; diffusion effects in catalysis.
INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL: Measurement of process variables;
dynamics of simple systems such as CSTRs, heat exchanges, transfer functions, response of
systems, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID); control valves; analysis of
closed loop systems including stability, frequency response (including Bode plots) and controller
PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS: Design of chemical process plants; principles of process
economics and cost estimation.
CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY: Inorganic chemical reactions; sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide,
fertilizers; ammonia, urea, di-ammonium phosphate super phosphate; natural product
industries; pulp and paper, sugar, oil and fats; petroleum refining and petrochemicals;
polymerization industries; poly ethylene, poly propylene, and synthetic fibres.

1. Engineering Mechanics: Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force,
Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, non-concurrent and parallel forces in a plane,
moment of force and Varignon’s theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle
of virtual work, equivalent force system.
First and Second Moments of area, Mass moment of Inertia.
Static Friction Inclined plane and bearings.
Kinematics and Kinetics: Kinematics in Cartesian and polar co-ordinates, motion under uniform
and non-uniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle: Momentum and Energy
principles, D Alembert’s Principle, Collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies, simple
harmonic motion.
2. Strength of Materials: Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded
compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending moment,
Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength, Leaf spring, Strain
Energy in direct stress, bending and shear.
Deflection of beams: Macaulay’s method, Mohr’s moment area method, Conjugate beam
method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Transmission of power, close coiled helical
sprints, Elastic stability of columns: Euler’s, Rankine’s and Secant formulae. Principal Stresses
and Strains in two dimension, Mohr’s Circle. Theories of Elastic failure, Thin and Thick
cylinders: Stresses due to internal and external pressures-Lame’s equation.
3. Structural Analysis: Analysis of pin jointed plane trusses, deflection in trusses. Three
hinged and two hinged arches, rib shortening, temperature effects, influence lines in arches.
Analysis of propped cantilevers, fixed beams, continuous beams and rigid frames. Slope
deflection, moment distribution, Kani’s method and Matrix method: Force and Displacement
methods. Rolling loads and influence lines for determinate beams and pin jointed trusses.
Geotechnical Engineering: Types of soil, field identification and classification, phase
relationships, consistency limits, particle size distribution, classification of soil, structure and clay
Capillary water and structural water, effective stress and pore water pressure, Darcy’s Law,
factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil
Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi’s theory of
one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test. Compaction of soil, optimum moisture
content, Proctor Density.
Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, types of sampler, field tests.
Shear strength of soils, Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, shear tests Earth pressure at rest, active
and passive pressures, Rankine’s theory, Coulomb’s wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining
Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure,
immediate and consolidation settlement.
Load carrying capacity of pile groups.
Stability of slope-conventional method of slices, stability numbers.
Transportation Engineering: Highway alignment, choice of layout and capacity of highways,
location survey, geometric design of highways-various elements, curves, grade separation and
segregation of traffic, inter-section design, highway materials and testing subgrade and
pavement components, type of pavements, road drainage, elements of airport engineering.
Railway engineering-elements of permanent track-rails, sleepers, ballast and rail fastenings,
tractive resistance, elements of geometric design-gradients and grade compensation on curves,
cant transition curves and vertical curves, stresses in railway tracks, points and crossing,
signaling and inter-locking, maintenance of railway track. Culverts and small bridges.

Fluid Mechanics: fluid properties, fluid statics, forces on plane and curved surfaces, stability of
loating and submerged bodies.
Kinematics: Velocity, streamlines, continuity equation, accelerations irrotational and rotational
flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, separation.
Dynamics: Euler’s equation along streamline, control volume equation, continuity, momentum,
energy and moment of momentum equation from control volume equation, applications to pipe
flow, moving vanes, moment of momentum, Dimensional analysis.
Boundary layer on a flat plate, drag and lift on bodies. Laminar and Turbulent Flows. Laminar
and turbulent flow through pipes, friction factor variation, pipe networks, water hammer and
surge tanks.
Open Channel Flow: Energy and momentum correction factors, uniform and non-uniform
flows, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, Friction factors and roughness coefficients,
flow in transitions, free overfall, weirs, hydraulic jump, surges, gradually varied flow
equations, surface profiles, moving hydraulic jump.
Environmental Engineering:
Water Supply: Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for
water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis,
water borne diseases, standards for potable water.
Intake of water: Pumping and gravity schemes, water treatment; principles of coagulation,
flocculation and sedimentation; slow-, rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal
of taste, odour and salinity.
Water storage and distribution: storage and balancing reservoir types, location and capacity.
Distribution systems: layout, hydraulics of pipe lines, pipe fittings, valves including check and
pressure reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems, leak detection, maintenance
of distribution systems, pumping stations and their operations.
Sewerage systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage-separate and combined
systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes, inlets,
junctions, siphon. Plumbing in Public buildings.
Sewerage characterization: BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC.
Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.
Sewage treatment: Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters,
oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste
Construction Management: Elements and principles of Activity on Arrow (AOA) and Activity
on Node (AON) networks and work breakdown structure. Interfaces. Ladder networks. Activity
time. Time computations and works. ATC and PTC trade-off. Work study and sampling.
Scheduling principles-material schedules. ABC and EOQ analysis of inventory. Budgeting with
bar-charts. Working capital. PERT, probability of completion.
Elements of Engineering Economics, methods of appraisal, present worth, annual cost, benefitcost,
incremental analysis. Economy of scale and size. Choosing between alternatives
including levels of investments. Project profitability.

01. Logic families, gates, flip-flops, Multiplexers, decoders, registers, counters, adder
circuits, Boolean algebra, Combinational circuit design, minimisation, sequential circuit design,
number systems, inter conversion, number representation, computer organisation, instruction
formats, addressing modes, micro-programming, ALU organisation, multiplication and division
algorithms, memory hierarchy, cache and associate memories, virtual memory, memory IC’s,
I/Oo organisation schemes, interrupts, arbitration, DMA, IOP, micro processors, interfacing,
pipeline, SIMD and MIMD organisations, proposition and predicate logic’s, methods of
deduction, set theory, relations, functions, algebraic structures, lattices, recursion,
combinatorics, graph theory, representation, path matrix, warshall’s algorithm, cyclic and
bipartite graphs, planner graphs, Hamiltonian graph, chromatic number, trees, binary tree
traversals, representation of expressions, spanning trees, breadth-first and depth-first
algorithms, finite automation, pushdown automation, Turing machine, grammars, type 0, 1, 2,
and 3, LL and LR grammars.
02. Algorithms, flow-charts, programming methodology, data structures, PASCAL,
FORTRAN, COBAL and ‘C’ languages, theory of programming languages, file organisation,
searching and sorting; methods, DBMS, database models, query languages, operating system,
directory concept, processor scheduling, memory allocation, paging and segmentation, device
management, deadlocks and prevention, concurrent processing. DOS and UNIX features,
language processors, syntax and semantic analysis, code generation, optimisation, assemblers,
loaders and linkers, algorithm design techniques, Computer networks, digital modulation
techniques, modems, error detection and error correction, BISYNC and HDLC protocols, OSI
model, network routing algorithms, LAN operation methods, Computer graphics, DDA
algorithms, graphic primities, 2-D transformations, graphic input devices, software engineering
development life-cycle, system analysis, modular design, testing and validation, CASE tools, AI
techniques, natural language understanding, learning, knowledge representation, expert
systems, LISP, PROLOG.

Basic electrical laws, Analysis of DC networks, transient response of RLC networks
excited by impulse, step, ramp and sinusoidal excitations. Transform methods, transfer
functions, poles and zeros steady state AC networks, frequency domain analysis, resonance,
coupled circuits, two port networks, three phase networks, power in a.c. networks, power
measurement in 3-phase networks.
Electro static and electro magnetic fields, vector methods, Fields in dielectric, conducting
and magnetic materials, Laplace and Poisson’s equation. Time varying fields, Maxwell’s
equation, Poynting Theory, properties of transmission lines.
Electrical standards, Error analysis, Measurement of current, voltage, power, energy,
power factor, resistance, inductance capacitance frequency and loss angle. Indicating
instruments, extension of range of instruments, DC and AC bridges. Electronic measuring
instruments. Electronic multimeter, CRO, frequency counter, digital voltmeter, transducers,
Thermocouples, Thermistor, LVDT, strain gauges, Piezo electric crystal, Measurement of nonelectrical
quantities like, pressure, velocity, temperature, flow rate, displacement acceleration
and strain.
Open and closed loop control systems, Mathematical modelling, block diagram, signal
flow graphs, time response and frequency response of linerar systems, error constants and
series Rootlocus technique, Bodeplot, polar plot, M-circles, N-circles, Nichol’s charts, stability,
Routh Hurwitz criteria. Nyquist stability criteria, compensators, design in frequency domain.
Control system components. Servo motors, synchros, tacho generator, error detector. State
variable approach, modelling, state transition matrix, transfer function, response.
Solid state devices and circuits. Small and large signal-amplifiers with and without
feedback at audio and radio frequency, multistage amplifiers. Operational amplifiers and
applications. Integrated circuits oscillators, RC, LC and crystal oscillators wave form
generators, multi-vibrators – Digital circuits, Logic gates, Boolean algebra combinational and
sequential circuits. A to D and D to A converters Micro processors (8085) instruction set,
memories, interfacing programmable peripheral devices – Number system flow charts –
expressions and statements in C – language – simple programs for engineering application.
Fundamentals of electro mechanical energy conversion, constructional features of D.C.
Machines, emf equation types and characteristics of generators application, Torque in DC
motor, types of DC motors, applications. Testing of D.C. motors, efficiency, and starting and
speed control.
Construction – Principle of operation of 1-phase transformers – Vector diagram on No
Load and – Load – Parallel operation – Regulation – efficiency – Equivalent circuit 3 phase
transformer connections – Scott connection.
Production of rotating magnetic field, production of torque types of motors equivalent
circuits, Circle diagram, torque slip characteristics, starting and maximum torque, speed control,
principle of single phase induction motors, Applications.
Generation of emf in 3 phase AC Generator, Armature reaction, regulation by
Synchronous inpedance and Ampere turn methods, parallel operation, transient and subtransiat
reactances, theory of salient pole machines.
Synchronous Motor: Torque production, performance characteristics, methods of
starting, V-Curves, synchronous condenser.
Special Machines: Stepper motor, Methods of operation, Amplidyne and metadyneapplications.
General layout – Types of power stations, economics of different types, base load and
peak load stations, load factor and its effects, pumped storage schemes.

Calculation of line parameters, concepts of short, medium and long transmission lines,
ABCD parameters, insulators, Corona, P.U. quantities, fault calculations, symmetrical
components load flow analysis using Gauss Seidal, New-ton Raphson, methods, economic
operation, stability, steady state and transient stability, equal area criterion, ALFC and AVR
control for real time operation of interconnected systems.
Principles of arc quenching, circuit breaker classification, Recovery and restriking
voltages, relaying principles over current, directional over current relays-generator and
transformer protection using differential relays-line protection using distance relays Surgeo
phenomena in transmission lines – Travelling wave theory, protection against surges.
Industrial Drives – Motors for various drives – Braking methods – Speed control of
motors – Economics of rail traction – Mechanics of train movement – Estimation of power and
energy requirements – Illumination – Laws Factory lighting – Street lighting – Induction and
dielectric heating.

1. Electronic Devices and Circuits
Semiconductor Diodes-Varactor Diode-Zener Diode- Transistors –BJT, FET, UJT-Power
supplies-Rectifiers and filters, regulators, Transistor amplifiers-CE, CB, CC configurations-RC
coupled amplifiers-Differential amplifiers –feedback amplifiers-operational amplifier-applications,
Oscillators-RC,LC and crystal oscillators-Astable, bistable and monostable multivibrators-555
timer, Schmitt trigger-sweep circuits-Miller and boot strap circuits.
2. Networks and circuit theory
Mesh current and node voltage analysis, Network theorems-thevenin’s, Norton’s,
maximum Power transfer, super position, Reciprocity Theorems-series and parallel resonance-
Q factor-Linear wave shaping circuits-transmission lines-losses and impedance matching.
3. Electronic measurements
Analog and Digital measuring instruments:- Ammeter, voltmeter, ohmmeter, frequency
meter, power meter, Q-meter, CRO-CRT-time base generator-deflection sensitivity-CRO
applications-Digital IC tester, logic and spectrum analyzer.
4. Industrial and Power electronics
Thyristor family-SCR, TRAIC, Power BJT-IGBT-convertors- Half wave, full wave
controlled choppers-Invertors – cyclo converters-PWM inverter-speed control of AC/DC motorsopto
electronic Devices –Transducers-LVDT-strain gauge-thermistors, thermo couple –
5. Communications
Analog communications-AM, FM, PM modulations-Power requirements – Transmitters –
Receivers – Ground wave propagation- Sky and Space propagation. Digital communications –
Pulse modulations – PCM, Delta modulation – ASK, PSK, FSK and QAM- generation and
detection- multiplexing-TDM, FDM, WDM, multiple access-TDMA, CDMA, WDMA., Antennas,
wave guides, satellite communications, optical communications.
6. Digital Electronics & computer networks
Number systems – logic gates-Boolean algebra, adders and sub tractors – flip flopsregisters
and counters-memories-A/D and D/A converters – peripherals, 8085 microprocessor –
8051 micro controllers transmission media in computer networks – network topologies – packet,
message switching-OSI architecture and functions-wireless LAN, Blue tooth-ISDN, frame relay.
ATM networks – HTTP, DNS, POP, SMTP, FTP protocols.

STATICS: Simple applications of equilibrium equations.
DYNAMICS: Simple applications of equations of motion, work, energy and power.
THEORY OF MACHINES: Simple examples of kinematic chains and their inversions.
Different types of gears, bearings, governors, flywheels and their functions.
Static and dynamic balancing of rigid rotors.
Simple vibration analysis of bars and shafts.
Linear automatic control systems.
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS: Stress, strain and Hookes Law. Shear and bending moments in
beams. Simple bending and torsion of beams, springs and thin walled cylinders. Elementary
concepts of elastic stability, mechanical properties and material testing.
MANUFACTURING SCIENCE: Mechanics of metal cutting, tool life, economics of machining,
cutting tool materials. Basic types of machine tool and their processes. Automatic machine
tools, transfer lines. Metal forming processes and machines-shearing, drawing, spinning,
rolling, forging, extrusion. Types of casting and welding methods. Power metallurgy and
processing of plastics.
MANUFACTURING MANAGEMENT: Methods and time study, motion economy and work
space design, operation and flow process charts. Cost estimation, break-even analysis.
Location and layout of plants, material handling. Capital budgeting, job shop and mass
production, scheduling, dispatching, Routing, Inventory.
THERMODYNAMICS: Basic concepts, definitions and laws heat, work and temperature, Zeroth
law, temperature scales, behaviour of pure substances, equations of state, first law and its
corollaries, second law and its corollaries. Analysis of air standard power cycles, carnot, otto,
diesel, brayton cycles. Vapour power cycles, Rankine reheat and regenerative cycles,
Refrigeration cycles-Bell Coleman, Vapour absorption and Vapour compression cycle analysis,
open and closed cycle gas turbine with inter-cooling, reheating.
ENERGY CONVERSION: Flow of steam through nozzles, critical pressure ratio, shock
formation and its effect. Steam generators, mountings and accessories. Impulse and reaction
turbines elements and layout of thermal power plants.
Hydraulic turbines and pumps, specific speed, layout of hydraulic power plants.
Introduction to nuclear reactors and power plants, handling of nuclear waste.
REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING: Refrigeration equipment and operation and
maintenance, refrigerants, principles of air conditioning, psychrometric chart, comfort zones,
humidification and dehumidification.
FLUID MECHANICS: Hydrostatics, continuity equation, Bernoulli’s theorem, flow through
pipes, discharge measurement, laminar and turbulent flow, boundary layer concept.

Unit 1 : The Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies
Definition, scope and importance
Need for public awareness.
Unit 2: Natural Resources:
Renewable and non-renewable resources:
Natural resources and associated problems.
a) Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction,
mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people.
b) Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought,
conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems.
c) Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using
mineral resources, case studies.
d) Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing,
effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case
e) Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources,
use of alternate energy sources. Case studies.
f) Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion
and desertification.
Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.
Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.
Unit 3: Ecosystems
• Concept of an ecosystem.
• Structure and function of an ecosystem.
• Producers, consumers and decomposers.
• Energy flow in the ecosystem.
• Ecological succession.
• Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids.
• Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the following
a. Forest ecosystem
b. Grassland ecosystem
c. Desert ecosystem
d. Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)
Unit 4: Biodiversity and its conservation
• Introduction – Definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity.

• Biogeographical classification of India
• Value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic
and option values
• Biodiversity at global, National and local levels.
• India as a mega-diversity nation
• Hot-spots of biodiversity.
• Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts.
• Endangered and endemic species of India
• Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity
Unit 5: Environmental Pollution
Causes, effects and control measures of :-
a. Air pollution
b. Water pollution
c. Soil pollution
d. Marine pollution
e. Noise pollution
f. Thermal pollution
g. Nuclear hazards
• Solid waste Management: Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial
• Role of an individual in prevention of pollution
• Pollution case studies
• Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.

Unit 6: Social Issues and the Environment
• From Unsustainable to Sustainable development
• Urban problems related to energy
• Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management
• Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns. Case studies.
• Environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions.
• Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and
holocaust. Case studies.
• Wasteland reclamation
• Consumerism and waste products.

• Environment Protection Act.
• Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.
• Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act
• Wildlife Protection Act
• Forest Conservation Act
• Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation
• Public awareness.
Unit 7: Human Population and the Environment
• Population growth, variation among nations.
• Population explosion- Family Welfare Programme
• Environment and human health.
• Human Rights.
• Value Education.
• Women and Child Welfare.
• Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health.
• Case Studies.
Unit 8: Field work
• Visit to a local area to document environmental assets-river / forest / grassland / hill /

General Silvicultural Principles; ecological and physiological factors influencing
vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests, methods of propagation, grafting
techniques; site factors; nursery and planting techniques – nursery beds, polybags and
maintenance, water budgeting, grading and hardening of seedlings, special approaches,
establishment and tending.
Habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-establishment and rehabilitation of
degraded mangrove formations; protection of habitats against natural disasters.
Traditional and recent advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices. Silviculture
of some of the economically important species in India such as Acacia Sundra, Acacia
nilotica Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia procera, Anthocephalus Cadamba,
Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea monosperma, Cassia siamea,
Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sisoo, Dipterocarpus spp., Emblica officinalls, Eucalyptus
spp, Gmelina arborea, Hardwickia binata, Lagerstoremia lanceolata, Pterocarpus marsupium,
Prosepis juliflora, Santalum album, Semi-carpus anacardium, Salmalia malabaricum, Tectona
grandis, Terminalia tomentosa, Tamarindus indica.
Agroforestry: scope and necessity; role in the life of people and domestic animals and in
integrated land use, planning especially related to
i) soil and water conservation;
ii) water recharge;
iii) nutrient availability to crops;
iv) nature and eco-system preservation including ecological balances through pest-predator
relationships and
v) providing opportunities for enhancing biodiversity, medicinal and other flora and fauna.
Agro forestry systems under different agro-ecological zones, selection of species and
role of multipurpose trees and NTFPs, techniques, food, fodder and fuel security.
Research and Extension needs.
Social/Urban Forestry: objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation.
JFM – principles, objectives, methodology, scope, benefits and role of NGOs.
Forest soils, classification, factors affecting soil formation; physical, chemical and
biological properties.
Soil conservation – definition, causes for erosion, types – wind and water erosion;
conservation and management of eroded soils/areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand dunes;
reclamation of saline and alkaline soils, water logged and other waste lands. Role of forests in
conserving soils. Maintenance and build up of soil organic matter, provision of loppings for
green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and composing; Role of microorganisms in ameliorating
soils; N and C cycles, VAM.
Concepts of watershed; role of mini-forests and forest trees in overall resource
management, forest hydrology, watershed development in respect of torrent control, river
channel stabilization, rehabilitation of degraded areas; hilly and mountain areas; watershed
management and environmental functions of forests; water-harvesting and conservation; ground
water recharge and watershed management; role of integrating forest trees, horticultural crops,
field crops, grass and fodders.
Environment: Components and importance, principles of conservation, impact of
deforestation; forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and
developmental projects, population growth on environment.
8. POLLUTION - Types, global warming, green house effects, ozone layer depletion, acid rain,
impact and control measures, environmental monitoring; concept of sustainable development.
Role of trees and forests in environmental conservation; control and prevention of air, water and
noise pollution.

Objective and principles; techniques; stand structure and dynamics, sustained yield
relation; rotation, normal forest, growing stock; regulation of yield; management of forest
plantation, commercial forests, forest plantations, forest cover monitoring. Approaches viz., i)
site-specific planning, ii) strategic planning, iii) Approval, sanction and expenditure, iv)
Monitoring, v) Reporting and governance. Details of steps involved such as formation of Village
Forest Committees, Joint Forest Participatory Management.
Forest planning, evaluation and monitoring tools and approaches for integrated planning;
multipurpose development of forest resources and forest industries development; working plans.
Annual Plant of Operations.
Methods of measuring – diameter, girth, height and volume of trees; form-factor; volume
estimation of stand, current annual increment; mean annual increment. Sampling methods and
sample plots. Yield calculation, yield and stand tables, forest cover monitoring through remote
sensing; Geographic information Systems for management and modeling.
Forest ecology – Biotic and aboitic components, forest eco-systems; forest community
concepts; vegetation concepts, ecological succession and climax, primary productivity, nutrient
cycling and water relations; physiology in stress environments (drought, water logging salinity
and alkalinity: Forest types in India, identification of species, composition and associations;
dendrology, taxonomic classification, principles and establishment of herbaria. Clonal parks.
Role of Ethnobotany in Indian Systems of Medicine; Ayurveda and Unani – Introduction,
nomenclature, habitat, distribution and botanical features of medicinal and aromatic plants.
Environmentally sound forest harvesting practices, logging and extraction techniques
and principles, transportation systems, storage and sale; Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs)
definition and scope; gums, resins, oleoresins, fibres, oil seeds nuts, rubber, canes, bamboos,
medicinal plants, charcoal lac and shellac. Katha and Bidi leaves, collection, processing and
Need and importance of wood seasoning and preservation; general principles and
seasoning, air and kiln seasoning, solar dehumidification, steam heated and electrical kilns.
Composite wood; adhesives-manufacture, properties, uses plywood manufacture-properties,
uses fibre boards-manufacture properties uses; particle-boards manufacture; properties uses.
Present status of composite wood industry in India in future expansion plans. Pulp-paper and
rayon; present position of supply of raw material to industry, wood substitution, utilization of
plantation wood; problems and possibilities.
Injuries to forest – abiotic and biotic destructive agencies, insect – pests and disease,
effects of air pollution on forests and forest die back. Susceptibility of forests to damage, nature
of damage, cause, prevention, protective measures and benefits due to chemical and biological
control. General forest protection against fire, equipment and methods, controlled use of fire,
economic and environmental costs; timber salvage operations after natural disasters. Role of
afforestation and forest regeneration in absorption of CO2. Rotational and controlled grazing,
different methods of control against grazing and browsing animals; effect of wild animals on
forest regeneration, human impacts; encroachment, poaching, grazing live fencing, theft,
shifting cultivation and control.
Forest economics – fundamental principles, cost-benefit analysis; estimation of demand
and supply; role of private sector and cooperatives; role of corporate financing.
16. Legislation-History of forest development Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1952 and 1990.
National Forest Policy 1988 of People’s involvement, Joint Forest Management, involvement of
women, Forestry Policies and issues related to land use, timber and non-timber products,
sustainable forest management; industrialisation policies.

Part - I
a) General Geology: Solar System. The Earth: its origin, age and internal constitution.
Volcanoes-types, distribution geological effects and products. Earth-quakes-intensity,
magnitude, distribution, causes and effects. Elementary ideas about isostasy, geosynclines,
mountain building, continental drift, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.
b) Geomorphology: Basic concepts. External and internal processes. Rock weathering. Cycle
of erosion. Fluvial landforms and drainage patterns. Landforms of Aeolian, marine, glacial
and ‘Karst’ landscapes. Elements of Remote Sensing.
c) Structural and field Geology: Primary and secondary structures. Dip and strike of beds.
Unconformities. Study of folds, joints, faults, foliation and lineations. Overthrusts and nappe
structures. Stages of rock deformation. Construction of block diagrams, Stereographic and
equal-area nets. Solutions of simple problems by stereographic net. Topographic maps and
their interpretation. Use of clinometer compass in the field Measurements of bed, foliation,
folds joints, faults and lineations in the field. Principles of geological mapping. Effects of
topography on outcrops. Drawing of sections.
Part – II
a) Crystallography: Elements of crystal structure. Laws of crystallography, Symmetry
elements of normal classes of seven crystal systems. Properties and interaction of light and
crystalline matter. Petrological microscope and accessories. Construction and use of Nicole
prism. Pleochroism, double refraction, extinction angle, birefringence and twinning in
crystals, Isotropic, uniaxial and biaxial minerals.
b) Mineralogy: Physical, chemical and optical properties of the following common rock forming
minerals: quartz, feldspar, mica, pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, garnet, chlorite, carbonates,
aluminosilicates. Structure of silicates and crystal chemistry of minerals. Gemstones.
c) Economic Geology: Ore, ore mineral and gangue. Classification of ore deposits. Important
processes of their formation. Occurrence, origin and distribution in India of the ores of
aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, lead, zinc, iron, manganese and radioactive elements.
Deposits of minerals use as abrasives, refractories and in ceramics, deposits of coal and
petroleum. Elements of prospective of mineral deposits.
Part – III
a) Igneous Petrology: Origin of magma and formation of igneous rocks. Bowen’s reaction
principle. Crystallisation of binary systems. Classification of igneous rocks. Textures and
structures of igneous rocks. Composition, origin and mode of occurrence of granite, syenite
diorite, mafic and ultramafic groups, anorthosites and alkaline rocks.
b) Sedimentary Petrology: Sedimentary process and products. Classification of sedimentary
rocks. Sedimentary structures. Residual deposits – their mode of formation, chacteristics
and types, Clastic deposits – their classification, mineral composition and texture.
Elementary ideas about the origin and characteristics of quartz arenites, arkoses and
greywackes. Siliceous and calcareous deposits of chemical and organic origin.
c) Metamorphic Petrology: Types and factors of metamorphism. Zones, grades and facies of
metamorphism. Regional and contact metamorphism. Textures and structures of
metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism of argillaceous, arenaceous, calcareous and basic
rocks. Metasomatism.
Part – IV
a) Paleontology: Habits and habitats of animals. Fossils and fossilization. Modes of
preservation. Application of fossils, Study of morphology and geological history of
Foraminiferida, Brachipoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Echinoidea and
Anthozoa. Mammals of Siwalik Group. A brief study of Gondwana flora.
b) Stratigraphy and Geology of India: Fundamental laws of stratigraphy. Stratigraphic
classification lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic. Geological time
scale. Physiographic divisions and outline of stratigraphy of India. Brief study of Dharwar,
Vindhyan and Gondwana Supergroups and Siwalik Group with reference to their major
subdivisions, lithology, fossils, aerial distribution and economic importance.

a) Importance of horticulture in terms of economy, production, employment generation,
environmental protection and human resource development. Nutritional value of
horticultural crops. Divisions of horticulture and their importance.
b) Temperature, light, humidity, rainfall and soil requirements for horticultural crops.
Selection of site for establishing an orchard, orchard plan, systems of planting.
Establishment of an orchard. Objectives of orchard management culture, different methods
of orchard culture. Pruning and training – objectives, methods and effects.
c) Nutrition of horticultural crops – assessment of nutritional requirements, Identification of
deficiency symptoms, methods of nutrient application. Assessment of irrigation
requirements for different horticultural crops, irrigation methods.
d) Flower bud initiation and formation. Factors affecting them, environmental influences,
chemical, nutritional management practices. Pollination and fruit set, problems and
requirements, flower and fruit drop, stages, causes, remedial measures. Unfruitfulness,
reasons and remedial measures. Harvesting, maturity indices for horticultural crops.
Ripening, chemical, physical changes during ripening, and methods of ripening. Use of
growth regulators in Horticulture – propagation sex expression, fruit set, fruit drop and
extension of shelf life.
a) Principles and classification of plant propagation methods. Plant propagation structures,
containers and media.
b) Sexual propagation and its importance. Factors affecting germination and
pregermination treatments.
c) Sexual propagation and it’s importance. Propagation of plants by cuttage, factors
affecting regeneration of plants from cuttings. Types of cuttings, propagation by layerage.
Factors affecting regeneration of plants by layerage. Methods of layerage.
d) Propagation by grafting, importance of graftage. Factors for successful grafting.,
Selection of rootstock and scion. Methods of budding and grafting Rootstocks for
commercial fruit plants. Stock scion relations and role of Rootstocks in fruit production.
Area, production, importance in national economy, nutritive values, origin and distribution
botany, classification and identification of species and varieties, root stocks, role in high
density planting climate, soils, planting methods training and pruning, nutrition, irrigation
scheduling, intercrops, and management of practices of
a) fruit crops mango, banana, citrus, grape, pineapple, guava, papaya, sapota.
b) Plantation Crops: Coconut, cashew nut, oil palm, coffee, tea, cacao, areca nut and
IV. Origin, importance, export potential, varieties, climate, soil requirements, propagation
and planting and after care, manuring, irrigation, training, pruning, harvesting and post harvest
handling, curing and processing practices, storage methods, yield and distillation of essential
oils of the following crops.
a) Medicinal plants: Dioscorea, Opium poppy, Rauwolfia, Solanum Khasianum,
Catharanthus roseus, Pyrethrum, Isabgol Digitalis, Belladona, Senna and Trichonas
b) Aromatic crops: Citronella, lemon grass, palmarosa, vettiver, geranium, davana, mint,
lavender, vanilla.
c) Spices and Condiments: Cardamom, pepper, cinnamon, Clove and nutmeg.
V. a) Importance and scope, production of horticultural crops in greenhouse. Status and
development of greenhouse production of horticultural crops. Points to be considered
before establishing a greenhouse. Greenhouse and related structures location, types, size
and arrangement, types of greenhouse framework, types of greenhouse covering materials,
ventilation and air circulation, greenhouse benches etc.,

b) Control of environmental factors influencing the growth i.e., light, temperature
(greenhouse heating and cooling) moisture, and relative humidity. Role of growth
regulators on the growth and development of greenhouse crops.
c) Preparation of growing media requirement and its management at different stages of
crop growth. Management of nutrients through fertigation at various stages of crop growth
in different crops.

1. Algebra: Elements of Set Theory; Algebra of Real and Complex numbers including
Demovire’s between Coefficients and Roots, symmetric functions of roots; Elements of
Group Theory; Sub-Group, Cyclic groups, Permutation, Groups and their elementary
properties. Rings, Integral Domains and Fields and their elementary properties.
2. Vector Spaces and Matrices: Vector Space, Linear Dependence and Independence. Subspaces.
Basis and Dimensions, Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces. Linear Transformation of
a Finite dimensional vector Space, Matrix Representation. Singular and Nonsingular
Transformations. Rank and nullity. Matrices: Addition, Multiplication, Determinants of a
Matrix, Properties of Determinants of order in, Inverse of a Matrix, Cramer’s rule.
3. Geometry and Vectors: Analytic Geometry of straight lines and conics in Cartesian and
Polar coordinates; Three Dimensional geometry for planes, straight lines, sphere, cone and
cylinder. Addition, Subtraction and Products of Vectors and Simple applications to
4. Calculus: Functions, Sequences, Series, Limits, Continuity, Derivatives. Application of
Derivatives: Rates of change, Tangents, Normals, Maxima, Minima, Rolle’s Theorem, Mean
value Theorems of Lagrange and Cauchy, Asymptotes, Curvature. Methods of finding
indefinite integrals, Definite Integrals, Fundamental Theorem of integrals Calculus.
Application of definite integrals to area, Length of a plane curve, Volume and Surfaces of
5. Ordinary Differential Equations: Order and Degree of a Differential Equation, First order
differential Equations, Singular solution, Geometrical interpretation, Second order equations
with constant cooefficients.
6. Mechanics: Concepts of particles-Lamina; Rigid body; Displacement; force, Mass; Weight;
Motion, Velocity; Speed; Acceleration; Parallelogram of forces; Parallelogram of velocity,
acceleration; resultant; equilibrium of coplanar forces; Moments; Couples; Friction; Centre
of mass, Gravity; Laws of motion; Motion of a particle in a straight line; simple Harmonic
motion; Motion under conservative forces; Motion under gravity; Projectile; Escape velocity;
Motion of artificial satellites.
7. Elements of Computer Programming: Binary system, Octal and Hexadecimal systems.
Conversion to and from Decimal systems. Codes, Bits, Bytes and Words. Memory of a
computer, Arithmetic and Logical operations on numbers. Precision. AND, OR, XOR, NOT
and Shit/Rotate operators, Algorithms and Flow charts.
1. Mechanics and Waves: Dimensional analysis. Newton’s laws of motion and
applications, variable mass systems, projectiles. Rotational dynamics-kinetic energy, angular
momentum, theorems of moment of inertia and calculations in simple cases. Conservative
forces, frictional forces. Gravitational potential and intensity due to spherical objects. Central
forces, Kepler’s problem, escape velocity and artificial satellites (including GPS). Streamline
motion, viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation. Applications of Bernoulli’s equation and Stokes’ law.
Special relativity and Lorentz transformation-length contraction, time dilation, mass-energy
Simple harmonic motion, Lissajous figures. Damped oscillation, forced oscillation and
resonance. Beats, Phase and group velocities. Stationary waves, vibration of strings and air
columns, longitudinal waves in solids. Doppler effect. Ultrasonics and applications.
2. Geometrical and Physical Optics: Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat’s
principle. Matrix method in paraxial optics- thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin
lenses. Chromatic and spherical aberrations. Simple optical instruments- magnifier, eyepieces,
telescopes and microscopes.
Huygen’s principle-reflection and refraction of waves. Interference of light – Young’s
experiment, Newton’s rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer. Fraunhofer
diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power. Fresnel diffraction- halfperiod
zones and zone plate. Production and detection of linearly, circularly and elliptically
polarized light. Double refraction, quarter-waves plates and half-wave plates. Polarizing
sheets. Optical activity and applications. Raman & Rayleigh scattering and applications.
Elements of fibre optics-attenuation; pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres;
material dispersion. Lasers, characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence.
Focusing of laser beams and applications.
3. Heat and Thermodynamics: Thermal equilibrium and temperature. The zeroth law of
thermodynamics. Heat and the first law of thermodynamics. Efficiency of Carnot engines.
Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. Kinetic theory and the equation of state of an
ideal gas. Mean free path, distribution of molecular speeds and energies. Trasport
phenomena. Andrew’s experiments-van der Waals equation and applications. Joule-Kelvin
effect and applications. Bronian motion. Thermodynamic potentials-Maxwell relations. Phase
transitions. Kirchhoff’s laws. Black-body radiation – Stefan-Boltzmann law, spectral radiancy,
Wien displacement law, application to the cosmic microwave background radiation, Planck
radiation law.
4. Electricity and Magnetism: Electric charge, Coulomb’s law, electric field, Gauss’ law.
Electric potential, van de Graff accelerator. Capacitors, dielectrics and polarization. Ohm’s law,
Kirchhoff’s first and second rules, resistors in series and parallel, applications to two-loop
circuits. Magnetic field-Gauss’ law for magnetism, atomic and nuclear magnetism, magnetic
susceptibility, classification of magnetic materials. Cirulating charges, cyclotron, synchrotron.
Hall effect. Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law of induction – Lenz’s law. Inductance.
Alternating current circuits – RC, LR, single-loop LRC circuits, impedance, resonance, power in
AC circuits. Displacement current, Maxwell’s equations (MKS Units), electromagnetic waves,
energy transport and Poynting vector.
5. Atomic and Nuclear Physics: Photoelectric effect, Einstein’s photon theory. Bohr’s
theory of hydrogen atom. Stern Gerlach experiment, quantisation of angular momentum,
electron spin. Pauli exclusion principle and applications. Zeeman effect. X-ray spectrum,
Bragg’s law, Bohr’s theory of the Mosley plot. Compton effect, Compton wavelength. Wave
nature of matter, de Broglie wavelength, wave-particle duality. Heisenberg’s uncertainty
relationships. Schroedinger’s equation-eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of (i) particle in a box,
(ii) simple harmonic oscillator and (iii) hydrogen atom. Potential step and barrier penetration.
Natural and artificial radioactivity. Binding energy of nuclei, nuclear fission and fusion.
Classification of elementary particles and their interactions.
6. Electronics.: Diodes in half-waves and full-wave rectification, qualitative ideas of
semiconductors p type and n type semiconductors, junction diode, Zener diode, transistors,
binary numbers, Logic gates and truth tables, Elements of microprocessors and computers.

Probability: Random experiment, sample space, event, algebra of events, probability on a
discrete sample space, basic theorems of probability and simple examples based theorem,
conditional, probability of an event, independent events, Bayer’s theorem and its application,
discrete and continuous random variables and their distributions, expectation, moments,
moment generating function, joint distribution of two or more random variables, marginal and
conditional distributions, independence of random variables, covariance, correlation, coefficient,
distribution of a function of random variables. Bernouli, binomial, geometric, negative binomial,
hypergeometric, poisson, multinomial, uniform, beta, exponential, gamma, cauchy, normal,
longnormal and bivariate normal distributions, real-life situations where these distributions
provide appropriate models, Chebyshev’s inequality, weak law or large numbers and central
limit theorem for independent and identically distributed random variables with finite variance
and their simple applications.
Statistical Methods: Concept of a statistical population and a sample, types of data,
presentation and summarization of data, measures of central tendency, dispersion, skewness
and kurtosis, measures of association and contingency, correlation, rank correlation, intraclass
correlation, correlation ratio, simple and multiple linear regression, multiple and partial
correlations (involving three variables only), curve-fitting and principle of least squares, concepts
of random sample, parameter and statistic, Z, X2, t and F statistics and their properties and
applications, distributions of sample range and median (for continuous distributions only),
censored sampling (concept and illustrations).
Statistical Inference: Unbiasedness, consistency, efficiency, sufficiency, completeness,
minimum variance unbiased estimation, Rao-Blackwell theorem, Lehmann-Scheffe theorem,
Cramer-Rao inequality and minimum variance bound estimator, moments maximum likelihood,
least squares and minimum chisquare methods of estimation, properties of maximum likelihood
and other estimators, idea of a random interval, confidence intervals for the parameters of
standard distributions, shortest confidence intervals, large-sample confidence intervals. Simple
and composite hypotheses, two kinds of errors, level of significance, size and power of a test,
desirable properties of a good test, most powerful test, Neyman-Pearson lemma and its use in
simple example, uniformly most powerful test, likelihood ratio test and its properties and
Chi-square test, sign test, Wald-Wolfowitz runs test, run test for randomness, median test,
Wilcoxon test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test.
Wal’s sequential probability ratio test, OC and ASN functions, application to binomial and
normal distributions. Loss function, risk function, mini-max and Bayes rules.
Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments: Complete enumeration vs. sampling, need for
sampling, basic concepts in sampling, designing large-scale sample surveys, sampling and nonsampling
errors, simple random sampling, properties of a good estimator, estimation of sample
size, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling cluster sampling, ratio and regression
methods of estimation under simple and stratified random sampling, double sampling for ratio
and regression methods of estimation, two-stage sampling with equal-size first-stage units.
Analysis of variance with equal number of observations per cell in one, two and three-way
classifications, analysis of covariance in one and two-way classifications, completely
randomized design, randomized block design, latin square design, missing plot technique, 2n
factorial design, total and partial confounding, 32 factorial experiments, split-plot design and
balanced incomplete block design.

1. General: Role of Livestock in Indian Economy and human health. Mixed farming.
Agroclimatic zones and livestock distribution. Socioeconomic aspects of livestock enterprise
with special reference to women.
2. Genetics and Breeding: Principle of genetics, chemical nature of DNA and RNA and their
models and functions. Recombinant DNA technology, transgenic animals, multiple ovulation
and embryo-transfer. Cytogenetics, immunogenetics and biochemical polymorphic and their
application in animal improvement. Gene actions. Systems and strategies for improvement.
Geneaction. Systems and strategies for improvement of livestock for milk, meat, wool
production and drought and poultry for eggs and meat. Breeding of animals for disease
resistance. Breeds of livestock, poultry and rabbits.
3. Nutrition: Role of nutrition in animal health and production. Classification of feeds,
Proximate composition of feeds, feeding standards, computation of rations. Ruminant nutrition.
Concepts of total digestible nutrients and starch equivalent systems. Significance of energy
determinations. Conservation of feeds and fodder and utilization of agro by-products. Feed
supplements and additives. Nutrition deficiencies and their management.
4. Management: Systems of housing and management of livestock poultry and rabbits. Farm
record. Economics of livestock, poultry and rabbit farming. Clean milk production. Veterinary
hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation. Sources of water and standards of potable
water. Purification of water. Air changes and thermal comfort. Drainage systems and effluent
disposal Biogas.
5. Animal Production: (a) Artificial insemination, fertility and sterility. Reproductive physiology,
semen characteristics and preservation. Sterility its causes and remedies. (b) Meat eggs and
wool production. Methods of slaughter of meat animals, meat inspection, judgment, carcass
characteristics, adulteration and its detection processing and preservation; Meat products,
quality control and nutritive value, By-products. Physiology of egg production, nutritive value,
grading of eggs preservation and marketing.
Types of wool, grading and marketing.
6. Veterinary Science: (i) Major contagious diseases affecting cattle, buffaloes, horses, sheep
and goats, pigs, poultry, rabbits and pet animals-Etiology, symptoms, pathogenicity, diagnosis,
treatment and control of major bacterial, viral, rickettsial and parasitic infections. (ii)
Description, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the following:
a) Production diseases of milk animals, pig and poultry.
b) Deficiency diseases of domestic livestock and birds
c) Poisonings due to infected/contaminated foods and feeds, chemicals and drugs.
7. Principles of immunization and vaccination: Different types of immunity, antigens and
antibodies. Methods of immunization. Break-down of immunity, Vaccines and their use in
Zoonoses, Foodborne infections and intoxications, occupation hazards.
8. (a) Poisons used for killing animals euthanasia.
(b) Drugs used for increasing production/performance efficiency and their adverse
(c) Drugs used to tranquilize wild animals as well as animals in captivity.
(d) Quarantine measures in India and abroad. Act, Rules and Regulations.
9. Dairy Science: Physicochemical and nutritional properties of milk.
Quality assessment of milk and milk products, Common tests and legal standards. Cleaning
and sanitation of dairy equipment. Milk collections, chilling, transportation processing,
packaging, storage and distribution. Manufacture of market milk, cream butter, cheese, icecream,
condensed and dried milk, by products and Indian Milk products.
Unit operations in dairy plant.
Role of micro organisam in quality of milk and products physiology of milk secretion.

1. Cell structure and function:
a) Prokaryote and eukaryote
b) Structure of animal cell, structure and functions of cell organelles.
c) Cell cycle-mitosis, meiosis.
d) Structure and contents of nucleus including nuclear membrance, structure of chromosome
and gene, chemistry of genetic components.
e) Mendel’s laws of inheritance, linkage and genetic recombination; cytoplasmic inheritance.
f) Function of gene: replication, transcription and translation; mutations (spontaneous and
artificial); Recombinant DNA; principle and application
g) Sex determination in Drosophila and man; sex linkage in man
2 Systematics:
a) Classification of non-chodrates (upto sub-classes) and chordates (up to orders) giving
general features and evolutionary relationship of the following phyla: Protozoa, Porifera,
Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematheliminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca,
Echinodermata, Minor Phyla (Bryozoa, Phoronida and Chaetognatha) and Hemichordata.
b) Structure reproduction and life history of the following types: Amoeba, Monocystis,
Plasmodium, Paramaecium, Sycon, Hydra, Obelia, Fasiola, Taenia, Ascaris, Neanthes,
Pheretima, Hirudina, Palaemon, Buthus, Periplaneta, Lamellidens, Pila, Asterias and
c) Classification of chordates (up to orders), giving general features and evolutionary
relationship of the following: Protochordata; Agnatha; Gnathostomata-Pisces, Amphibia,
Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia.
d) Comparative functional anatomy of the following based on type animals (Scoliodon, Rana,
Calotes, Columba and Oryctolagus): integrument and its derivatives, endoskeleton,
digestive system, respiratory system, circulator system including heart and aortic arches,
urinogenital system; brain and sense organs (eye and ear); endocrine glands and other
hormone producing structures, (Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads)
their function.
3. Vertebrate Physiology and Biochemistry:
a) Chemical composition of protoplasm; nature and function of enzymes; vitamins, their
sources and role; colloids and hydrogen ion concentration; biological oxidation, electron
transport and role of ATP, enegetics, glycolysis, citric acid cycle; vertebrate hormones; their
type, sources and function; pheromones and their role.
b) Neuron and nerve impulse-conduction and transmission across synapses;
nenurotrasmitters and their role, including acetyl cholinesterase activity.
c) Homeostasis; osmoregulation; active transport and ion pump.
d) Composition of carbohydrates, fats, lipids and proteins; steroids.
4. Embryology:
a) Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage; gastrulation in frog and chick
b) Metamorphosis in frog and retrogressive metamorphosis in ascidian; extra-emhryonic
membranes in chick and mammal; placentation in mammals; Bio-genetic law.
5. Evolution:
a) Origin of life; principles, theories and evidences of evolution; species concept.
b) Zoogeographical realms, insular fauna; geological eras.
c) Evolution of man; evolutionary status of man.
6. Ecology, Wildlife and Ethology:
a) Abiotic and biotic factors; concept of ecosystem, food chain and energy flow; adaptation of
aquatic, terrestrial and aerial fauna; intra-and inter-specific animal relationships;
environmental pollution; Types, sources, causes, control and prevention.
b) Wildlife of India; endangered species of India; sancturaries and national parks of India.
c) Biological rhythms.
7. Economic Zoology:
a) Beneficial and harmful insects including insect vectors of human diseases.
b) Industrial fish, prawn and molluscs of India.
c) Non-poisonous and poisonous snakes of India
d) Venomous animals-centipede, wasp, honey bee
e) Diseases caused by aberrant chromosomes/genes in man; genetic counselling; DNA as a
tool for forensic investigation.

(Definition 28 of General Rule - 2)
(Substituted with effect from 27-07-1977 through G.O.Ms.No. 838, G.A.(Services-D)
Department, dated 15/12/1977)
1 Adi Andhra
2 Adi Dravida
3 Anamuk
4 Aray Mala
5 Arundhatiya
6 Arwa Mala
7 Bariki
8 Bavuri
9 Beda Jangam, Budga Jangam (In Districts of Hyderabad, Rangareddy,
Mahaboobnagar, Adilabad, Nizamabad, Medak, Karimnagar, Warangal, Khammam
and Nalgonda)*
10 Bindla
11 Byagara, Byagari*
12 Chachati
13 Chalavadi
14 Chamar, Mochi, Muchi, Chamar-Ravidas, Chamar-Rohidas*
15 Chambhar
16 Chandala
17 Dakkal, Dokkalwar
18 Dandasi
19 Dhor
20 Dom, Dombara, Paidi, Pano
21 Ellamalwar, Yellammalawandlu
22 Ghasi, Haddi, Relli, Chachandi
23 Godagali, Godagula(in the Districts of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram & Vishakapatnam) *
24 Godari
25 Gosangi
26 Holeya
27 Holeya Dasari
28 Jaggali
29 Jambuwulu
30 Kolupulvandlu, Pambada, Pambanda, Pambala *
31 Madasi Kuruva, Madari Kuruva
32 Madiga
33 Madiga Dasu, Mashteen
34 Mahar
35 Mala, Mala Ayawaru *
36 Mala Dasari
37 Mala Dasu
38 Mala Hannai
39 Mala Jangam
40 Mala Masti
41 Mala Sale, Netkani
42 Mala Sanyasi
43 Mang
44 Mang Garodi
45 Manne
46 Mashti
47 Matangi
48 Mahter
49 Mitha Ayyalvar
50 Mundala
51 Paky, Moti, Thoti
52 (Omitted)*
53 Pamidi
54 Panchama, Pariah
55 Relli
56 Samagara
57 Samban
58 Sapru
59 Sindhollu, Chindollu
60 Yatala (Srikakulam Dist. Only) Memo No. 8183/CV-1/2006-10 SW (CV-I) Dept., Dt.
61 Valluvan * (Chittoor and Nellore Dist. Only) Memo No. 8183/CV-1/2006-10 SW (CV-I)
Dept., Dt. 31/03/2008
* As for the Constitution (Scheduled Caste) orders (Second Amendment) Act 2002, Act No. 61
of 2002
1. Andh, Sadhu Andh *
2. Bagata
3. Bhil
4. Chanchu (Chenchwar omitted) *
5. Gadabas, Boda Gadaba, Gutob Gadaba, Kallayi Gadaba, Parangi Gadaba, Kathera Gadaba,
Kapu Gadaba *
6. Gond, Naikpod, Rajgond, Koitur *
7. Goudu (in the Agency tracts)
8. Hill Reddis
9. Jatapus
10. Kammara
11. Kattunayakan
12. Kolam, Kolawar *
13. Konda Dhoras, Kubi *
14. Konda Kapus
15. Konda Reddis
16. Kondhs, Kodi, Kodhu, Desaya Kondhs, Dongria Kondhs, Kuttiya Konds, Tikiria Khondhs,
Yenity Khondhs, Kuvinga *
17. Kotia, Bentho Oriya, Bartika, Dulia, Holva, Sanrona, Sidhopaiko (Dhulia, Paiko, Putiyaomitted
18. Koya, Doli Koya, Gutta Koya, Kammara Koya, Musara Koya, Oddi Koya, Pattidi Koya,
Rajah, Rasha Koya, Lingadhari Koya (Ordinary), Kottu Koya, Bhine Koya, Raj Koya
(Goud-omitted *)
19. Kulia
20. Malis (excluding Adilabad, Hyderabad, Karimnagar, Khammam, Mahabubnagar, Medak,
Nalgonda, Nizamabad and Warangal District)
21. Manna Dhora
22. Nayaks (in the Agency tracts)
23. Mukha Dhora, Nooka Dhora
24. Pardhan
25. Porja, Parangi Perja
26. Reddi Dhoras
27. Rona, Rena
28. Savaras, Kapu Savaras, Maliya Savaras, Khutto Savaras
29. Sugalis, Lambadis, Banjara *
30. Thoti (in Adilabad, Hyderabad, Karimnagar, Khammam, Mahabubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda,
Nizamabad and Warangal Districts)
31.Valmiki (in the Scheduled Areas of Vishakapatnam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, East
Godavari and West Godavari Districts *)
32. Yenadis, Chella Yenadi, Kappala Yenadi, Manchi Yenadi, Reddi Yenadi *
33. Yerukulas, Koracha, Dabba Yerukula, Kunchapuri Yerukula, Uppu Yerukula *
34. Nakkala Kurivikaran (Nakkala – A.P. Gazette, Part – III (B) Central Acts ordinance and
Regulations Issue No. 05 Dt. 02/10/2003 )
35. Dhulia, Paiko, Putiya (in the districts of Vishakapatnam, Vizianagaram *)
* As for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Amendment) Act 2002, Act No. 10
of 2003
(Amended from time to time as on 31/08/2007)
Aboriginal Tribes, Vimuktha Jathis, Nomadic and Semi Nomadic Tribes etc.,
1. Agnikulakshatriya, Palli, Vadabalija, Besta, jalari, Gangavar, Gangaputra, Goondla,
Vanyakulakshatriya (Vannekapu, Vannereddi, Pallikapu, Pallireddy Neyyala and
Pattapu) *Mudiraj / Mutrasi / Tenugollu, The G.O. Ms.No. 15 BCW(C2) Dept., dt.
19/02/2009 is suspended. Hence the inclusion of Mudiraj / Mutrasi / Tenugollu is
suspended) vide Hon’ble A.P. High Court orders in WP No. 2122/2009 dated: 29-
2. Balasanthu, Bahurupi
3. Bandara
4. Budabukkala
5. Rajaka (Chakali Vannar)
6. Dasari (formerly engaged in bikshatana)
(amended vide G.O.Rt.No. 32, BCW(M1) Department, dated 23/02/1995)
7. Dommara
8. Gangiredlavaru
9. Jangam (whose traditional occupation is begging)
10. Jogi
11. Katipapala
12. Korcha
13. Lambada or Banjara in Telangana Area
(deleted and included in S.T. list vide G.O.Ms.No. 149, SW, dated 3/5/1978)
14. Medari or Mahendra
15. Mondivaru, Mondibanda, Banda
16. Nayee Brahmin (Mangali), Mangala and Bajantri
(amended vide G.O.Ms.No. 1, BCW(M1) Department, dated 6/1/1996)
17. Nakkala (Deleted vide G.O. Ms. No. 21, BCW(C2) Dept., Dt. 20/06/2011)
18. Vamsha Raj (amended vide G.O.Ms.No. 27, BCW(M1) Department, dated 23/06/1995
deleting the Original name Pitchiguntla)
19. Pamula
20. Pardhi (Mirshikari)
21. Pambala
22. Peddammavandlu, Devaravandlu, Yellammavandlu, Mutyalammavandlu (Dammali,
Dammala, Dammula, Damala Castes confined to Srikakulam dist. Vide G.O.Ms. No.: 9
BCW(C2) Dept., Dt. 9/04/2008)
23. Veeramushti (Nettikotala), Veera bhadreeya (Amended vide G.O. Ms. No. 62, BCW (M1)
Dept., Dt. 10/12/1996)
24. Valmiki boya (Boya, Bedar, Kirataka, Nishadi, Yellapi, Pedda Boya) Talayari and
(G.O.Ms. No. 124, SW, Dt. 24.06.85) Yellapi and Yellapu are one and the same
amended vide G.O. Ms. No. 61, BCW(M1) Dept., Dt. 05.12.1996)
25. Yerukalas in Telangana area (deleted and included in the list of S.Ts)
26. Gudala
27. Kanjara - Bhatta
28. Kalinga (Kinthala deleted vide G.O.Ms. No. 53, SW, Dt. 07.03.1980)
29. Kepmare or Reddika
30. Mondipatta
31. Nokkar
32. Pariki Muggula
33. Yata
34. Chopemari
35. Kaikadi
36. Joshinandiwalas
37. Odde (Oddilu, Vaddi, Vaddelu)
38. Mandula (Govt. Memo No. 40-VI/70-1, Edn., Dt. 10.02.1972)
39. Mehator (Muslim) (Govt. Memo No. 234-VI/72-2, Edn., Dt. 05.07.1972).
40. Kunapuli (Govt. Memo No. 1279/P1/74-10, E&SW, Dt. 03.08.1975)
41. Patra (included in G.O. Ms. No. 8, BCW(C2) Dept., Dt. 28.08.2006)
42. kurakula of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam Districts only. Included vide
in G.O.MS.No. 26 BC W (C2) Dept., Dt. 4/07/08
43. Pondara of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, and Visakhapatnam Districts only. Included vide
G.O.MS.No. 28 BC W (C2) Dept., Dt. 4/07/08
44. Samanthula, Samantha, sountia, Sauntia of Srikakulam District only. Included vide
G.O.MS.No. 29 BC W (C2) Dept., Dt. 4/07/08
45. pala-Ekari, Ekila, Vyakula, Ekiri, Nayanivaru, Palegaru, Tolagari, Kavali of Chittor,
Cuddapah, Kurnool, Anantapur, Nellore, Hyderabad and Rangareddy Districts only.
Included Vide G.O. MS. No. 23 B.C. W (C2) Dept., Dt. 4/07/08
46. Rajannala, Rajannalu of Karimnagar, Warangal, Nizamabad and Adilabad Districts only.
(included in vide G.O.Ms. No. 44 B.C.W(C2) Dept., Dt.07/08/2008).
47. Bukka Ayyavars, Included vide G.O.Ms.No. 6 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., dt.
48. Gotrala, Included vide G.O.Ms.No. 7 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., dt.
19/02/2009. The area of operation shall be confined to Telangana Region only.
49. Kasikapadi / Kasikapudi, Included vide G.O.Ms.No. 8 Backward Classes Welfare (C2)
Dept., dt. 19/02/2009. The area of operation shall be confined to Hyderabad,
Rangareddy, Nizamabad, Mahaboobnagar and Adilabad Districts of Telangana Region
50. Siddula, Included vide G.O.Ms.No. 9 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., dt.
19/02/2009. The area of operation shall be confined to Telangana Region only.
51. Sikligar / Saikalgar, Included vide G.O.Ms.No. 10 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept.,
dt. 19/02/2009.
52. Poosala included vide G.O. Ms.No. 16 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., dt.
53. Aasadula / Asadula, included vide G.O. Ms. No. 13, Backward Classes Welfare (C2)
Dept., Dt. 27/05/2011. The area of operation shall be confined to East Godavari and
West Godavari Districts only.
54. Keuta/Kevuto/Keviti, included vide G.O. Ms. No. 15, Backward Classes Welfare
(C2) Dept., Dt. 27/05/2011. The area of operation shall be confined to Srikakulam
District only.
GROUP – B (Vocational)
1. Achukatlavandlu in the Districts of Visakhapatnam and Guntur confined to Hindus only
as amended vide G.O. Ms. No. 8, BCW(C2) Dept., Dt. 29.03.2000
2. Aryakshatriya, Chittari , Giniyar, Chitrakara, Nakshas (Muchi Telugu Speaking deleted
vide G.O. Ms. No. 31, BCW (M1) Dept., 11.06.1996)
3. Devanga
4. Goud (Ediga) Gouda (Gamella) Kalalee, Goundla, Settibalija of Vishaphapatnam, East
Godavari, West Godavari and Krishna Districts and Srisayana (Segidi) – (amended vide
G.O. Ms. No. 16, BCW (A1) Dept., dt. 19.06.1997
5. Dudekula, Laddaf, Pinjari or Noorbash
6. Gandla, Telikula, Devatilakula (Amended vide G.O. Ms. No. 13, BCW(A1) Dept., dt.
7. Jandra
8. Kummara or Kulala, Salivahana (Salivahana added vide G.O. Ms. No. 28, BCW(M1)
Dept., 24.06.1995)
9. Karikalabhakthulu, Kaikolan or Kaikala (Sengundam or Sengunther)
10. Karnabhakthulu
11. Kuruba or Kuruma
12. Nagavaddilu
13. Neelakanthi
14. Patkar (Khatri)
15. Perika (Perikabalija, Puragirikshatriya)
16. Nessi or Kurni
17. Padmasali (Sali, Salivan, Pattusali, Senapathulu, Thogata Sali)
18. Srisayana ((sagidi)- deleted and added to Sl.No. 4 of Group-B)
19. Swakulasali
20. Thogata, Thogati or Thogataveerakshtriya
21. Viswabrahmin, Viswakarma (Ausula or Kamsali, Kammari, Kanchari Vadla or Vadra or
Vadrangi and Silpis)
(Viswakarma added vide G.O. Ms. No. 59 BCW(M1) Dept., Dt. 06.12.1995)
22. Kunchiti, Vakkaliga, Vakkaligara, Kunchitiga of Anantapur Dist. Only vide G.O. Ms.No.
10 BCW(C-2) Dept., Dt. 9-04-2008
23. Lodh, Lodhi, Lodha of Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Khammam and Adilabad Districts only.
Included in Vide G.O.MS.No. 22 BC W (C2) Dept., Dt. 4/07/08
24. Bondili (included in vide G.O.Ms. No. 42, B.C.W(C2) Dept., Dt.07/08/2008)
25. Are Marathi, Maratha(Non-Brahmins), Arakalies and Surabhi Natakalavallu. (included in
vide G.O.Ms. No. 40, B.C.W(C2) Dept., Dt.07/08/2008)
26. Neeli (included in vide G.O.Ms. No. 43, B.C.W(C2) Dept., Dt.07/08/2008).
27. Budubunjala/Bhunjwa/Bhadbhunja, included vide G.O.Ms. No. 11, Backward
Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., Dt. 27/05/2011. The area of operation shall be confined
to Hyderabad and Ranga Reddy District only.
28. Gudia/Gudiya, included vide G.O.Ms. No. 14, Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept.,
Dt. 27/05/2011. The area of operation shall be confined to Srikakulam,
Vizianagaram and Vishakhapatnam, district only.
Scheduled Castes converts to Christianity and their progeny
(Substituted in G.O.Ms.No.159, G.A.(Ser.D) Dept., dt. 02/04/1981)
GROUP – D (Other Classes)
1. Agaru
2. Are-Katika, Katika, Are-Suryavamsi(Are-Suryavamsi added vide G.O. Ms. No. 39, B.C.
W(C2) Dept., Dt. 7/08/08)
3. Atagara
4. Bhatraju
5. Chippolu (Mera)
6. Gavara
7. Godaba
8. Hatkar
9. Jakkala
10. Jingar
11. Kandra
12. Kosthi
13. Kachi
14. Surya Balija, (Kalavanthulu) Ganika (amended vide G.O.Ms. No. 20, BCW(P2) Dept., Dt.
15. Krishanabalija (Dasari, Bukka)
16. Koppulavelama
17. Mathura
18. Mali (Bare, Barai, Marar and Tamboli of all Districts of Telangana Region added as
synonyms vide G.O. Ms. No. 3, BCW(C2) Dept., Dt. 09.01.2004 and G.O. Ms. No. 45,
B.C.W(C2) Dept., Dt.07/08/2008)
19. Mudiraj / Mutrasi / Tenugollu.
20. Munnurukapu (Telangana)
21. Nagavamsam (Nagavamsa) vide G.O.Ms.No. 53, BC Welfare Dept., dated:19/09/1996
22. Nelli(deleted vide G.O.Ms. No. 43, B.C.W(C2) Dept., Dt.07/08/2008)
23. Polinativelmas of Srikakulam and Visakhapatnam districts
24. . . . deleted vide G.O. Ms.No. 16 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., dt. 19/02/2009
25. Passi
26. Rangrez or Bhavasarakshtriya
27. Sadhuchetty
28. Satani (Chattadasrivaishnava)
29. Tammali (confined to five districts of Nalgonda, Mahaboobnagar, Karimnagar,
Nizamabad and Adilabad of Telangana Region only and not to other parts of A.P. as
amended vide G.O. Ms. No. 20, BCW(A1) Dept., dt 21.07.1997)
30. Turupukapus or Gajula kapus {… the words “of Srikakulkam, Vizianagaram and
Vishakapatnam Districts” were deleted vide G.O.Ms.No. 62, Backward Classes Welfare
(C2) Dept., dt. 20/12/2008 and G.O. Ms.No. 19 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept.,
dt. 19/02/2009} who are subject to Social customs or divorce and remarriage among
their women (G.O. Ms. No. 65, E&SW, dt. 18.02.1994)
31. Uppara or Sagara
32. Vanjara (Vanjari)
33. Yadava (Golla)
34. Are, Arevallu and Arollu of Telangana District (Included vide G.O.Ms.No. 11, Backward
Classes Welfare (C-2) Department, dt. 13/5/2003 and G.O.Ms. No. 41, B.C.W(C2)
Dept., Dt.07/08/2008)
35. Sadara, Sadaru of Anantapur Dist. Only vide G.O.Ms.No. 11 BCW (C-2) Dept., Dt. 9-04-
36. Arava of Srikakulam District only. Included in vide G.O. MS. No. 24 BC W (C2) Dept., Dt.
37. Ayyaraka, of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari,
Krishna, Guntur, Khammam and Warangal Districts only. Included in vide G.O. MS. No.
25 BC W (C2) Dept., Dt. 4/07/08
38. Nagaralu of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, Krishna, Hyderabad and
Rangareddy Districts only. Included in vide G.O. MS. No. 27 BC W (C2) Dept., Dt.
39. Aghamudian, Aghamudiar, Agamudivellalar and Agamudimudaliar including Thuluva
Vellalas of Chittoor, Nellore, Kurnool, Anantapur, Hyderabad and Rangareddy Districts
only. Included in vide G.O. MS. No. 20 BC W (C2) Dept., Dt. 4/07/08
40. Beri Vysya, Beri Chetty of Chittoor, Nellore and Krishna Districts only. Included in vide
G.O. MS. No. 21 BC W (C2) Dept., Dt. 4/07/08
41. Atirasa included vide G.O. Ms.No. 5 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., dt.
19/02/2009. The area of operation shall be confined to East Godavari and West
Godavari Districts only.
42. Sondi / Sundi included vide G.O. Ms.No. 11 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., dt.
43. Varala included vide G.O. Ms.No. 12 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., dt.
19/02/2009. The area of operation shall be confined to Telangana region only.
44. Sistakaranam included vide G.O. Ms.No. 13 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., dt.
45. Lakkamari Kapu included vide G.O. Ms.No. 14 Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept.,
dt. 19/02/2009. The area of operation shall be confined to Telangana region only.
46. Veerashaiva Lingayat/Lingabalija, included vide G.O. Ms.No. 22 Backward Classes
Welfare (C2) Dept., dt. 28/02/2009.
47. Kurmi, included vide G.O.Ms. No. 12, Backward Classes Welfare (C2) Dept., Dt.
27/05/2011. The area of operation shall be confined to Telangana Region and also
Krishna District only.
(Socially and Educationally Backward Classes of Muslims)
1. Achchukattalavandlu, Singali, Singamvallu, Achchupanivallu, Achchukattuvaru,
2. Attar Saibuli, Attarollu
3. Dhobi Muslim/ Muslim Dhobi/ Dhobi Musalman, Turka Chakla or Turka Sakala, Turaka
Chakali, Tulukka Vannan, Tskalas or Chakalas, Muslim Rajakas.
4. Faqir, Fhakir Budbudki, Ghanti, Fhakir, Ghanta Fhakirlu, Turaka Budbudki, Derves,
5. Garadi Muslim, Garadi Saibulu, Pamulavallu, Kani-Kattuvallu, Garadollu, Garadiga.
6. Gosangi Muslim, Phakeer Sayebulu
7. Guddi Eluguvallu, Elugu Bantuvallu, Musalman Keelu Gurralavallu
8. Hajam, Nai, Nai Muslim, Navid
9. Labbi, Labbai, Labbon, Labba
10. Pakeerla, Borewale, Deraphakirlu, Bonthala
11. Kureshi/ Khureshi, Khasab, Marati Khasab, Muslim Katika, Khatik Muslim
12. Shaik/ Sheikh
13. Siddi, Yaba, Habshi, Jasi
14. Turaka Kasha, Kakkukotte Zinka Saibulu, chakkitakanevale, Terugadu Gontalavaru,
Thirugatiganta, Rollaku Kakku Kottevaru, Pattar Phodulu,
Chakketakare, Thuraka Kasha
15. Other Muslim groups excluding
Syed, Saiyed, Sayyad, Mushaik;
Mughal, Moghal;
Bohara, Bohra;
Shia Imami Ismaili, Khoja;
and all the synonyms and sub-groups of the excluded groups; and except those who
have been already included in the State List of Backward Classes.
N.B.: 1. The above list is for information and subject to confirmation with reference to
G.O.Ms.No. 58, SW(J) Department, dated 12/05/1997 and time to time orders.
2. On account of any reason whatsoever in case of any doubt/ dispute arising in
the matter of community status (SC/ST/BC/OC) of any candidate, subject to
satisfaction with regard to relevant rules and regulations in force the decision of
the Commission shall be final in all such cases.

For detailed Notification click here
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